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Flashcards in Respi Deck (23)
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1

Albuterol
[MOA, clinical use]

B2-agonist, for Asthma.
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscles (B2).
For acute exacerbation (fast onset, short duration).

2

Salmeterol, Formoterol
[MOA, clinical use]

B2-agonist, for Asthma.
Bronchodilation.
Long-acting, for prophylaxis (slow onset, long duration).

3

Fluticasone, Budesonide
[MOA, clinical use]

Corticosteroids.
1st line: chronic asthma.
Inhibit cytokine synthesis; inactivates NF-KB (transcription factor for TNF-a).
Anti-inflammation, bronchodilator.

4

Ipratropium
[MOA, clinical use]

Muscarinic antagonist (bronchodilator).
Prevents bronchoconstriction.
For Asthma, COPD.

5

Montelukast, Zafirlukast
[MOA, clinical use]

Antileukotrienes, block leukotriene receptors.
Esp. good for aspirin-induced asthma.
Monitor liver enzymes (inc.).

6

Zileuton
[MOA, clinical use, toxicity]

>5-lipoxygenase path inhibitor (rate-limiting enzyme) -- Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
>For anti-inflammation in Asthma.
>Hepatotoxic.

7

Theophylline
[MOA, clinical use, Toxicity]

Methylxanthine.
>Inhibits phosphodiesterase -- dec. cAMP hydrolysis -- inc. cAMP.
>For bronchodilation in asthma, COPD.
>Limited use: Cardiotoxic, neurotoxic (permeable to all tissues).

8

1st gen H1 blockers
Drug names

Diphenhydramine
Dimenhydrinate
Chlorpheniramine

9

1st gen H1 blockers
MOA

Reversibly inhibits H1 receptors.
Dec. parasympathetic tone of arterioles.

10

1st gen H1 blockers
Clinical use

Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid

11

1st gen H1 blockers
Toxicity

Sedation (CNS depressant).
Anticholinergic, antiemetic (antimuscarinic, anti-alpha-adrenergic).

12

2nd gen H1 blocker
Drug names

Loratidine, fexofenadine, desloratidine, cetirizine

13

2nd gen H1 blockers
MOA

Reversibly inhibits H1 receptors.
Dec. parasympathetic tone of arterioles

14

2nd gen H1 blockers
Clinical use

Allergy

15

Guaifenesin
[MOA, clinical use]

Expectorant.
Thins respi secretions; less viscous mucus.
Doesn't suppress cough reflex.

16

N-acetylcysteine
[MOA, clinical use, antidote for what]

Mucolytic.
>Loosens mucus plugs by breaking disulfide bonds (in CF pts); lessens viscosity.
>Antidote: acetaminophen overdose.

17

Dextromethorphan
[MOA, clinical use, toxicity]

Antitussive.
Codeine analog, mild opioid -- Naloxone for overdose.
Antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors.
May cause serotonin syndrome.

18

Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine
MOA

alpha-adrenergic agonists.
Dec. airway resistance -- vasoconstriction in nasal passages.

19

Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine
Clinical use

Nasal decongestant.
Reduce hyperemia, edema, nasal congestion.

20

Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine
Toxicity

HTN
CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephedrine)

21

Omalizumab
[MOA, clinical use]

Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody.
Binds to unbound IgE; blocks IgE binding to mast cells and basophils -- lowers free serum IgE.
For allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and B2-agonists.

22

Bosentan
[MOA, clinical use, SE]

>Antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors to dec. pulmo vasculature resistance.
>For Pulmonary HTN.
>Hepatotoxic (monitor LFTs)

23

Sildenafil
[MOA, clinical use]

>PDE-5 inhibitor -- inc. cGMP, prolongs vasodilatory effect of NO.
>For pulmonary HTN, erectile dysfunction.