Flashcards in Gender, Crime And Justice Deck (10):
Why might official stats not give us a true picture of female crime?
Female crimes like shoplifting or prostitution is less likely yo be noticed and unlikely to be reported
More likely to be let off lightly
What is the chivalry thesis?
Criminal agents are men and feel they must be chivalrous to women
More lenient so crimes are less likely to end up on official stats
Only one in 9 women receive a prison sentence for shoplifting but 1 in 5 in men
What evidence is there against the chivalry thesis?
Ignores the fact that only 8% of females who had been a victim of sexual assault reported
They may simply commit less crimes
How is there a bias against women according to Heidenson?
Double standards- courts punish women for promiscuous behaviour. Youth workers records showed Sharpe that 7 out of 11 girls were referred to support because they were sexually active and none out of 44 boys
Women who don't conform to homosexuality and motherhood are punished more heavily
(Rape cases in court)
What is the functionalist sex role theory?
Boys are encouraged to be tough and aggressive = more predisposed to violent acts
Boys distance themselves from feminine roles by being masculine and aggressive
Absence of fathers in lone parent families- gangs are status and identity
What does Heindensohn argue about patriarchal control?
Women are conformist because-
Control at home- housework and childcare mean they are restricted from committing crimes. Girls are required to have a bedroom culture and do more housework
Control in public- threat of male violence against them, sensationalist reporting of rapes
Control at work- sexual harassment in the workplace keeps women in their place. Their subordinate positions means its harder to commit major crimes
What did Pat Carlen argue?
Poverty and being brought up in care or an oppressive family were the two main causes of criminality
What is the liberation thesis?
As women become more liberated they start to commit more male crimes
This is criticised by the fact that the women's movement emerged later than the 1950s rise in female crimes
Drugs stem from prostitution which is very unliberated
Why do men commit crime according to Messerschmidt?
Hegemonic masculinity. Men have to constantly work on keeping up a masculine image.