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Flashcards in Gender Schema Theory Deck (11)
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1
Q

Martin and Halverson (1981)

A

Developed this cognitive approach, in which a child seeks to acquire information about their own gender

2
Q

Difference between Gender schema theory and Kolberg’s theory

A

Is that in GST labelling is sufficient for a child to pay attention to gender-apporapiate behaviours. Kohlberg claimed this did not happen until after gender constancy wa established.

3
Q

Schemas

A

Mental representations of concepts. Children learn gender schemas at about age three, from interaction with other children and adults, and from the media. Gender schemas relate to cultural norms and ‘appropriate’ behaviour for men and women.

4
Q

Ingroup and outgroup schemas

A

Children identify with ingroup gender schemas and actively avoid outgroup behaviours. This leads to positive evaluation of the ingroup and negative evaluation of the outgroup: ‘boys are better than girls’. This enhances self esteem.

5
Q

Resilience of gender beliefs

A

Childten ignore information this is inconsistent with gender schemas, so it is very difficult to change sterotypes using counter-sterotypes.

6
Q

Peer relationships

A

Children believe that same-sex peers are ‘like me; and therefore more fun to play with. They also learn to avoid negative consequences of ignoring the schemas such as being teased.

7
Q

AO3

A
8
Q

Research to support the gender schema theory

A

P: Martin and Little (1990) found children under 4 had strong gender sterotypes about boys and girls are allowed to do,, despite a lack of gender stability or constancy.

E: Kohlberg’s theory would require chuldren to develip constancy before understanding gender roles, about age 6

E: This shows that children have acquired information about gender roles earlier than Kohlberg suggested, supporting GST

9
Q

Gender chemas organise new info

A

P: Bradbard et al. (1986) told four to nine years old that gender-neutral items were boys or girl items.

E: The children took a grater interest in items labelled as ingroup. They also remembered more of the ‘ingroup’ objects a week later.

E: THis shows how gender schemas help children to organise new information

10
Q

Changing stereotypes

A

P: GST explains why children are frequently highly sexist, despite effortd of parents and teachers to provide counter-stereotypes

E: However, Hoffman (1998) reported that children whose mothers work have less sterotyped views of what men do. This shows that children are receptive to non-sterotypes ideas of gender roles

E: This suggests that practical approaches to changing stereotypes should involve direct experience of people who do not fit stereotypes.

11
Q

Martin and Halverson (1983)

Gender schemas lead to cognitive disoritions

A

P: Martin and Halverson (1983) found that children under 6 remembered ore gender-consistent pictures (e.g female teacher, male firefighter) than gender-inconsistent ones (e.g female chemist, male nurse.)

E: Schemas even caused disoriton of memories so that children shown a bohy holding a doll (inconsistent, or counter-sterotypical) described it as a girl

E: The cognitive distortions maintain ingroup schemas and this evidence supports GST.

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