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TCA 11 - Anaemia > General anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in General anaemia Deck (21)
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1

What are the common signs of anaemia?

• Fatigue
• Weakness
• Pale or yellowish skin
• Irregular heartbeats
• SOB
• Dizziness or light-headedness
• Chest pain
• Cold hands and feet
• Headache

2

What is anaemia?

Drop in Hb below the normal range appropriate for the patient as for age, gender and race

3

What are the basic lab test you would perform when suspecting anaemia?

- Haematocrit
- Hb
- MCV
- MCH
- MCHC
- Reticulocyte count
- Blood film

4

What causes microcytic RBCs?

TAILS
o T - Thalassaemia
o A - Anaemia of chronic disease
o I - Iron-deficiency anaemia
o L - Lead poisoning
o S - Sideroblastic anaemia

5

What causes normocytic RBCs?

o Acute blood loss
o Anaemia of chronic disease
o Bone marrow failure
o Renal failure
o Hypothyroidism
o Haemolysis
o Pregnancy

6

What causes macrocytic RBCs?

MEGALOBLASTIC
o B12 or folate deficiency

NORMOBLASTIC
o Alcohol excess/liver disease
o Reticulocytosis
o Cytotoxic (hydroxycarbamide) and antifolate drugs
o Myelodysplastic syndromes)
o Marrow infiltration
o Hypothyroidism

7

What does a hypochromic RBC look like?

Area of central pallor >33% the diameter of the cell

8

How big should a normal RBC be on a blood film?

Roughly the same diameter as a small lymphocyte’s nucleus

9

What does a spherocytic RBC look like?

Small, deep pink cells with no central pallor

10

When would you transfuse a patient?

Hb <70 g/L

11

What does kolionychia indicate?

Iron-deficiency anaemia

12

What does angular cheilitis indicate?

- B12
- Folate
- IDA

13

What does atrophic glossitis indicate?

B12 or iron-deficiency anaemia

14

What does brittle hair and nails indicate?

Iron-deficiency anaemia

15

What does jaundice indicate?

Haemolytic anaemia

16

What do bone deformities indicate?

Thalassaemia

17

What does oedema, HTN and excoriations of the skin indicate?

CKD

18

When do cell divisions of the developing erythrocyte stop?

When the MCH is reached and the nucleus is extruded

19

What cause microcytic RBCs?

Reduction of Hb inside the developing erythrocyte encourages more cell divisions than normal
Erythrocyte becomes smaller

20

What causes macrocytic RBCs?

Anything that delays nuclear development means that fewer cell divisions take place before the final MCH is attained
Erythrocyte is larger

21

What are the 3 haematinic deficiencies?

1. Iron
2. B12
3. Folate