General concepts of the nervous system Flashcards Preview

MSK exam 1 AP > General concepts of the nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in General concepts of the nervous system Deck (47):
1

gray matter

nerve cell bodies lie within this

looks like an H

CELLULAR

divided into horns

2

white matter

interconnecting fiber tract systems

FIBER nature

funculi

anterior (ascending/descending motor tracks, pain and temperature tracks that ascend)
lateral (same as anterior)
posterior (sensory info from all areas of the body below the head taken up to areas of the brain)

3

afferent

sensory

toward CNS

4

efferent

motor

from the CNS

5

how many pairs of spinal nerves

31

6

how many thoracic nerves

12

7

how many cervical pairs

8

8

how many lumbar nerves

5

9

how many sacral

5

10

how many coccygeal nerves

1

11

NOTE: a ganglion exists on the dorsal root, which contains what?

the cells bodies of all the afferent sensory fibers, except for vagal afferents, below the level of the head

12

where does the first spinal nerve exit?

between the skull and CV1

13

how are spinal nerves numbered and where do they exit?

exit intervertebral foramina EXCEPT for in the cervical region

14

mixed nerve

motor and sensory formed at the junction of a dorsal and ventral root

15

dorsal root ganglion

is a nodule on a dorsal root of the spine that contains cell bodies of nerve cells (neurons) that carry signals from sensory organs toward the appropriate integration center.

nucleus-group of cell bodies found within the central nervous system

ganglion- nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS

16

dermatone

the unilateral area of skin innervated by the sensory fibers of a single spinal nerve

17

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

18

PNS

12 cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

19

lateral horn

"column"

discontinuous

found from C8 to L2 and picks up again at L2-3,4

gives rise to autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) nerve fibers (not under our control)

20

anterior horn

ventral

filled with cells that are motor cells that go to all muscles of your body

selectively stimulate one of these, a muscle would twitch

21

posterior horn

cell bodies that give rise to fibers that communicate with other areas

22

rootlets

coalesce to form root

which eventually form a single spinal nerve

23

spinal nerve

where dorsal and ventral roots come together ***

short entity (1 cm in length)

bifurcates and forms dorsal ramus and ventral ramus (larger)

24

are spinal cord segments and spinal column segments different? Do they correspond?

yes
and
no b.c the spinal cord does not span the entire length of the spinal column ***

spinal column segments--> vertebra

so if a T12 vertebra was crushed it would be effecting the lumbar spinal cord segments

25

spinal cord segment gives rise to ...

rootlets --> roots--> spinal nerve--> bifurcate and form dorsal and ventral ramus

which will coalesce to form single spinal nerve

26

pseudounipolar sensory neuron

has both peripheral process (conducting impulses from the receptor organ) toward the cell body

and a central process (continues from the cell body into the CNS)

these are part of the PNS

brings in sensation information

their cell body sits in the dorsal root ganglion
central fibers come in a synapse will cell in the posterior horn

27

is there any part of your body that will not feel sensation ?

NO

nerves that go to all parts of your body have both sensory and motor components (mixed nerves)

so dorsal and ventral ramus are also mixed nerves!***

28

3 things that dorsal rami innervate

skin of the back

deep back muscles

zygopathoseal facet joints of back (joints of the spine)

29

ventral primary ramus

forms all the somatic nerve plexuses of the body

innervate ventral torso

30

somatic plexus

cervical

brachial

lumbosacral

31

fibers within spinal nerves

General somatic afferent
General visceral afferent
General somatic efferent
general visceral efferent

32

peripheral visceral structures?

you have visceral structures all over (so even a sweat gland is visceral structure out in the periphery, so not just in the gut)

errector pili organ
vessel
sweat gland

33

exteroreceptor

bringing things in to the CNS

34

interoreceptors

proprioceptive -understand and feel limbs in a certain position without looking at it

35

all of the visceral afferents or somatic afferents all have their cell bodies where? GSA's and GVA's

in the dorsal root ganglion

so if asked where you find cell bodies that are responsible for innervating the cutaneous areas of the skin, they are found in the dorsal root ganglion


36

the only spinal nerve that has reduced or absent dorsal root ganglion is...

spinal nerve C1

-has to do with development

37

anterior horn

where all the motor neurons (cell bodies) sit for all the skeletal muscles in the entire body below the head

38

general somatic afferent

transmit sensations from the body to the CNS

(transmit info from skeletal muscles, tendons, and joint capsules and from the outside of the boyd concerning pain, touch, and temp)

39

general somatic efferent

transmit impulses to skeletal muscles

40

general visceral afferent

transmit pain or subconscious visceral reflex sensations (distention, blood gas) from hollow organs and blood vessels to the CNS

41

general visceral efferent

transmit impulses to smooth muscle and glandular tissue

innvervate smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands

autonomic

42

plexus formation comes from

following targets out periphery

43

two things about brachial plexuses

the fibers of a single spinal nerve entering the plexus are distributed to multiple branches of the plexus (one spinal nerve contributing fibers to many different peripheral nerves)

the peripheral nerves derived from the plexus contain fibers from multiple spinal nerves (one peripheral nerve distributing sensory fibers to many different spinal nerves)

44

posterior (primary) rami of spinal nerves

supply nerve fibers to the synovial joints of the vertebral column, deep muscles of the back and the overlying skin in a segmental pattern

as a general rule the posterior rami remain separate from each other (do not merge to form major somatic nerve plexuses)

45

dermatomal map

distribution of a single spinal nerve
-gives you spinal origin

no C5 in the trunk

46

difference between dermatone and peripheral nerve

area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve

peripheral nerves may have several spinal nerves in them
-peripheral nerve delivers innervations to dermatones
-gives nervous origin that has many spinal levels within it

47

1 place that is a 1 to 1 correlation (of innervation of the skin by a single spinal nerve)

independent intercostal nerves