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Flashcards in General GI tract anatomy Deck (45):
1

What does the peritoneal cavity normally contain?

A small amount of lubricating fluid

2

What is the relation of 'intra-peritoneal' organs to the peritoneal cavity?

They are enveloped in the cavity but not inside of it

3

What is the relation of 'retro-peritoneal' organs to the peritoneal cavity?

Their anterior surfaces are in contact with the cavity but they lie posterior to it

4

What is pneumo-peritoneum and what can cause it?

When air or gas gets into the peritoneal cavity. This can be a pathological process or as a result of laraposcopy when the cavity is inflated with CO2 so that they can see what they are doing

5

What significant artery can be damaged if a duodenal ulcer perforates?

gastro-duodenal artery which lies behind the first part of the duodenum

6

What are the clinical consequences of a damaged gastro-duodenal artery from duodenal ulcer perforation?

Severe bleeding and often massive haematemesis (vomiting up blood)

7

Blockage of what veins can cause portal hypertension?

Hepatic veins (which drain into the inferior vena cava) as they are distal to the portal vein and so would limit the flow through the portal vein and cause a rise in portal pressure

8

What forms the anterior border of the lesser sac?

1. Posterior surface of stomach
2. Lesser omentum
3. Part of the greater omentum

9

What forms part of the posterior border of the lesser sac?

1. Diaphragm
2. Pancreas

10

What is a porto-systemic anastomosis?

A part of the body which normally drains into the portal system but which has the facility to drain blood into the systemic system

11

In oesophageal varices how does the blood drain into the systemic system?

Systemic drainage - via the azygous vein
Portal drainage - via the left gastric vein

12

In the porto-systemic varices that present as the caput medusae, which veins are involved?

para-umbilical veins - veins which carry oxygenated blood from the mother to the fetus in utero and are noramally closed within one week of birth but can become re-canalised due to portal hypertension

13

What branch of the coeliac trunk gives rise to the left gastroepiploic artery (also called gastro-omental artery)

Splenic artery

14

Where does the left gastroepiploic artery travel after it has branched off of the splenic artery?

It travels along the greater curve of the stomach (about a cm away from it) to anastomise with the right gastroepiploic artery.

15

What are the three main structures that lie in the free edge of the lesser omentum?

Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal vein
Common bile duct

16

What is the ligamentum teres?

A remnant of the foetal umbilical vein, found in the falciform ligament

17

The gastro-duodenal artery branches off which artery to make its way down past the posterior of the first part of the duodenum?

Commonly the common hepatic artery

18

When does the common hepatic artery become known as the proper hepatic artery?

After the gastro-duodenal artery branches off of the common hepatic artery

19

The greater sac is divided into supracolic and infracolic compartments. What structure forms the physical divide between these compartments?

Transverse mesocolon (mesentery of the transverse colon)

20

Where is the gastrocolic ligament attached?

To the greater curve of the stomach and the transverse colon

21

What divides the infracolic compartment into right and left infracolic spaces?

The mesentery of the small intestine (holding it to the posterior abdominal wall)

22

The paracolic gutters are channels within the peritoneal cavity which connect the supracolic and infracolic compartments. Where do they lie?

Lateral to the ascending and descending colon (between the lateral aspect of the ascending and descending colon and the lateral abdominal wall)

23

What two compartments is the greater sac divided into?

Supracolic and infracolic compartments

24

Where is the pouch of Douglas found?

Beween the rectum and uterus (in females!). It is also called the rectouterine pouch

25

Below the arcuate line, what is the posterior surface of the rectus abdominis muscle in contact with?

The aponeurosis of the transverse abdominis

26

At what spinal level does the oesophagus pierce the diaphragm?

T10
NB: there are ten letters in the word 'oesophagus'

27

At what spinal level does the vena cava pierce the diaphragm?

T8
NB: there are eight letters in the word 'vena cava'

28

At what spinal level does the aorta pierce the diaphragm?

T12
NB: aortic hiatus has 12 letters in it

29

What structure lies around the oesophageal hiatus (where the oesophagus pierces the diaphragm) and helps prevent reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus?

Right crus of the diaphragm (a tendinous structure) which helps prevent reflux by tightening around the lower oesophagus

30

What structure of the diaphragm does the vena cava pass through?

Central tendon of the diaphragm

31

Which part of the pancreas does the portal vein originate behind?

Neck - at the confluence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins

32

What is the name of the artery that supplies blood to the lesser curve of the stomach?

Left gastric artery - which anastomoses with the right gastric artery (along the lesser curve of the stomach)

33

What are the three main branches of the coeliac trunk?

Left gastric artery
Splenic artery
Common hepatic artery

34

What is the name of the small lobe of the liver that lies in close approximation to the gallbladder?

Quadrate lobe

35

What is the name of the small lobe of the liver that lies very close to the vena cava at the posterior aspect of the liver?

Caudate lobe

36

What structures lies in the free edge of the lesser omentum?

The hepatic artery, portal vein and common bile duct

37

What artery does the gastroduodenal artery branch off of?

Common hepatic artery - it then descends down the posterior surface of the duodenum

38

What are the names of the sphincters which control the input and output of food into the stomach?

Superior sphincter - lower oesophageal sphincter
Inferior sphincter - pyloric sphincter

39

Where are the subphrenic spaces found?

Recesses in the greater sac between the anterosuperior face of the liver and the diaphragm

40

What divides the subphrenic spaces into left and right?

Falciform ligament

41

Where can the lymph nodes be found near the stomach?

the gastric lymphatic vessels travel with the arteries along the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach. Lymph fluids drain into the gastric and gastroepiploic lymph nodes found at these curvatures. Efferent lymphatic vessels from these nodes connect to the coeliac lymph nodes

42

What is the anatomical relationship between the duodenum and the pancreas?

The ucinate process, head and neck of the pancreas are nestled in the C shape of the duodenum

43

What is the relationship between the spenic blood vessel and the tail of the pancreas?

The splenic artery and vein travel along behind the posterior surface of the pancreas' tail

44

Where do the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein meet?

neck of pancreas

45

What is the relationship between the superior mesenteric vessel (artery and vein) and the third part of the duodenum?

The superior mesenteric vessel pass over the anterior surface of the third part of the duodenum