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Flashcards in General History And Development Of Pharmacy Deck (16)
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1
Q

Which era believe in spirits causing disorder and describe the treatment.

A

The oriental. They use incantation to drive out spirits along with concoctions from native drugs

2
Q

Name two drugs and their purpose from the oriental era

A

Ephedrine- use to treat common cold

Reserpine- use for hypertension

3
Q

Who is Shen Nung?

A

Shen Nung was emperor of China. The tested several hundred herbs on himself. The wrote the first Pen Tsao, documenting about 365 drugs. Some herbs still recognize are cinnamon bark, podophyllum and ginseng

4
Q

Describe how Italy change Pharmacy

A

There was a social and political reform of Pharmacy. Strict examination were required for someone to operate a pharmacy

5
Q

Describe the ancient era (Prehistoric to Egyptians)

A

The first men believed spirits caused illnesses. They copied behavior of animals when trying ailment. the used herbs and mud. Egyptians wrote the Ebers Papyrus. The oldest, most extensive medical/herbal record. It was later bought a named by George Ebers. The papyrus had, frankincense, myrrh, castor oil, aloes, peppermint

6
Q

Describe the ancient era (Babylonians to the Orients/Chinese)

A

The first pharmacy practice was dated to the babylonians. Clay tablets found with medicinal purposes. They had dosage forms including, draughts, lotions, plasters, enemas. The orients believe spirits and incantations. the Chinese used herbal treatments. the emperor, Shen Nung test hundreds of herbs on himself and wrote the first Pen Tsao.

7
Q

Describe the ancient era (Greco roman to arab)

A

The Greeks were the first to start thinking disease had a natural source not through spirits. The greeks created the first database showing diseases, treatments and epidemics. In the arab era, pharmaceutical knowledge and drug information grew. Apothecary shops became viable to malpractice. The first pharmacist was opened in bagdad. Dosage from the arabs included: syrups, conserves, confection and juleps.

8
Q

Describe the ancient era (renaissance)

A

Drug information grew. Pharmacy and medicine became separate professions. Pharmacist required university training and strict examinations. Pharmacist associations were formed. Pharmacy regulations and chemicals were introduced.

9
Q

Describe the empiric era

A

Roots, barks, herbal flowers etc, were controlled by the government. The toxicology of drugs and the effects on the human body was researched. Ben Frank opened the first hospital. Chemicals were discovered such as chlorine, oxygen, zinc, penicillin etc. Jonathon Roberts became the first hospital pharmacist and William Proctor became the father of Pharmacy.

10
Q

Describe the Industrial era/patient care era

A

Mass production of drugs. More research into the side effects of drugs.

11
Q

Who is the Hippocrates, Theophrastus and Paracelsus

A

Hippocrates is the father to medicine. The was the first to propose that sickness had nothing to do with spirits. He wrote the Hippocrates oath.
Theophrastus is the father to botany. Experiment on plants as medicines
Paracelsus believed chemicals made medicines, not herbs.

12
Q

Name the 6 scientist and their discovery

A

Banting and Best- Insulin
A.Flemming, E.Boris, H.Florey - Penicillin
Carl scheel and Joseph Priestly- oxygen, chlorine, acids

13
Q

Evolution of Pharmacy from the 1960’s – 21st century

A

In the 1960s, dispensing was no longer the highest professional activity of a pharmacist as patient care activities replaced it. Biotechnology is leading pharmaceutical change. Gene coding and recombinant DNA leading research.

14
Q

How did USA and germany contribute to pharmacy development?

A
USA
-the First pharmacy school (Philadelphia)
- National formularies
Germany
-Textbooks, journal and formularies
15
Q

How did Britain and france contribute to pharmacy development?

A
France
-Latin legitimacy and Roman Catholic to own and operate, read formulation and prescription
Britain
-British pharmacopoeia
-First patent for epsom salt
16
Q

Who is Galen?

A

Galen was a greek physician in rome. He originated the scientific method to medical investigation. He complied greek and roman medical texts.