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Flashcards in General Knowledge Deck (37):
1

What is the aka for the Sagittal Plane?

Anterior-posterior or median plane

2

What are the aka's for the Frontal Plane?

Lateral or coronal plane

3

T or F
The axis around which the movement takes places is always parallel to the plane in which it occurs

False

Perpendicular

4

The frontal axis is perpendicular to what plane?

Sagittal

5

The sagittal axis is perpendicular to what plane?

Frontal

6

What axis is perpendicular to the transverse plane?

The Longitudinal aka vertical axis

7

Flexion, extension and hyperextension, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion occur in what plane and around what axis?

Sagittal plane around a frontal-horizontal axis

8

what movements occur in the frontal plane around a sagittal-horizontal axis?

Abduction
Adduction
Side flexion of the trunk
Elevation & depression of shoulder girdle
Radial/ulnar deviation of wrist
Eversion and inversion of foot

9

Rotation of head, neck and trunk; internal rotation/external rotation of the arm or leg; horizontal adduction/abduction of the arm or thigh and pronation/supination of the forearm occur in what plane around what axis?

Transverse plane around the longitudinal axis

10

Circumduction is a combination of?

Flexion, extension, abduction and adduction

11

What are the two major types of motion involved in kinematics?

Osteokinematic
Arthrokinematic

12

When does osteokinematic motion occur?

when any object forms the radius of an imaginary circle about a fixed point

13

Direction of movement for Arthrokinematic motion is baed on what?

The shape of the joint surfaces

14

A combination of concave and convex shapes is known as?

Sellar

15

Which of the follow is not a movement that occurs at the articulation surfaces of joints:

Roll
Translation
Slide
Spin

Translation

16

T or F

Osteokinematic and arthrokinematic motions are indirectly related to each other

False!

Directly proportional and cannot occur completely without the other.

17

What is known as the number of independent modes of motion at a joint

Degrees of Freedom

18

A joint that can spin and swing in one way only or it can swing in two completely distinct ways is known as

2 degrees of freedom

19

Give an example of a joint with only 1 DOF

PIP

20

What is 3 DOF?

When a joint can spine and also swing in two distinct directions such as the Glenohumeral joint

21

What is closed-packed position of the joint

-The position of maximum congruity of the opposing joint surfaces.
- The end of travel in a joint whereby the surfaces are at a max congruency, the ligaments are taught, and further movement in that direction of travel may result in dislocation or fracture

22

Movement towards the close-packed position of a joint involves an element of joint ___________.

Compression (approximation)

23

Does closed-packed position give a joint more or less stability.

It is a position of maximal joint stability

24

What is known as the position of least joint congruity?

Open packed position

25

T or F

Movement away from the close-packed position involve an element of joint distraction (separation)

True

26

What is the position of least joint stability for the elbow?

70 degrees flexion and 10 degrees supination

27

Extreme movement in the open-packed position usually results in?

Sprain/strain

28

What are the factors of joint integrity?

Elastic energy
Passive stiffness
Muscle activation

29

What is meant by muscle activation?

The correct synergistic and antagonistic balance both in timing and strength or the muscle.

30

Give examples of external forces

Ground reaction force
Friction
Gravity

31

Internal forces = ?

Muscle contraction, joint contact, and joint shear forces

32

The capacity of tissue to withstand stress is dependent on a number of factors such as...

Age
The proteoglycan & collagen content in tissue
That ability of the tissue to undergo adaptive change
The speed at which the adaptive change must occur

33

Define inertia

The resistance to action or to change

34

What is force?

A vector quantity with magnitude, direction and point of application to a body

35

What is stress?

The force per unit area that occurs on the cross section of a structure in response to an externally applied load.

36

The deformation that occurs within a structure in response to externally applied loads is known as?

Strain

37

Define Hysteresis

The difference in the behaviour of a tissue when it is being loaded versus unloaded