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What does the term 'plateau' refer to?

Plateau occurs when continued adaptations no longer occur.

For further adaptations to occur some aspects of the training must change.


What does 'reversibility' mean?

If the heart, lungs and muscles are not used regularly then fitness gains will be lost.

This is known as reversibility.


What does 'specificity' mean?

This refers to the fact that adaptations are specific to the type of training performed and the demands placed upon the body.

It is most important for people what want to excel at a particular sport but not so important for most people with more general health related goals.


What is the S.A.I.D. principle?

Specific, Adaptation to, Imposed, Demand.

The principle surrounding 'specificity'.


List the standard 'short-term responses' to exercise that occur during training..

- increased heart rate
- increased breathing rate
- increased body temperature
- increased sweating
- dilation of blood vessels to the working muscles
- changes in blood pressure (the systolic pressure rises while the diastolic pressure stays approx. the same)
- aching and burning due to the build up of lactic acid
- increased blood flow to the working muscles


What is blood pooling and how can it be combatted / prevented?

When exercising the heart pumps blood to the muscles being used to provide them with the oxygen and nutrients they need.

When they are used up the force of the contracting muscles pushes the blood back to the heart to be oxygenated.

However when you stop exercising, the force pushing the blood back to the heart stops and the blood 'pools' in the muscles, along with the lactic acid and other waste products.

If you stop exercising suddenly this reduces the oxygen supply to the brain and can lead to dizziness and fainting.

An effective cool down, reducing intensity gradually, helps to keep the blood pumping and assists with the removal of waste products from the muscles. It also helps to lessen the post exercise muscle soreness (DOMS)


What does FITT refer to?

The FITT principles have been developed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

- F: frequency (number of times you train per week)
- I: intensity (level of work performed during an activity session)
- T: time (the duration of each session)
- T: type (what type of exercise you perform)


What are DOMS?

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness


What is the definition of strength?

The ability of a muscle to exert maximum force against resistance in one contraction.

1 repetition maximum = 1RM


What is the definition of endurance?

The ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over a period of time without fatigue.


What is the formula for power?

Power = force x speed


What is 'hypertrophy'?

Increased muscle mass - the process by which each muscle fibre increases in thickness over the course of a training programme.


What long term adaptations will occur if a strength training programme is continued over a number of weeks and months?

- increased muscle mass (hypertrophy)
- increased metabolic activity
- increased bone density
- stronger connective tissue
- increased efficiency of the creatine phosphate energy system
- increased efficiency of the nervous system (becomes better at recruiting more fast twitch muscle fibres)


What long term adaptations will occur with prolonged endurance training?

- maintenance of muscle mass (being toned)
- increased metabolic activity
- increased efficiency of the lactic acid system
- increased number of muscle capillaries
- increased efficiency of the nervousness system (becomes better at recruiting more slow twitch muscle fibres)


What does MSE stand for?

Muscle Strength Endurance


What is an LDL?

Low Density Lipoprotein.

LDLs have a high proportion of fat compared to normal proteins and fat is much less dense than protein.


What is an HDL?

High Density Lipoprotein.

Proteins with a higher proportion of proteins to fat.


What is a crude way to calculate maximum heart rate?

MHR = 220 - age.


What is RPE?

Rating of Perceived Exertion.

An alternative to measuring heart rate to measure exercise intensity.

The person simply rates how they feel on a scale using the numbers from 1 to 10.


What is the Borg test?

An alternative scale to measure exercise intensity.

It starts at 6. This is because the numbers can then be approximately related to heart rate by adding a 0.