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Flashcards in General Revision Hive Deck (12):

How is Batesian or Müllerian mimicry related to interactions between predators and prey?

Both of these forms of mimicry involve the use of warning colouration by prey against potential predators.


Why does convergence of phenotypic characteristics provide a good test of coevolution?

Because convergence occurs in phylogenetically independent lineages and therefore shows that coevolution is not a coincidental occurrence between two species.


What selective advantages will bat-pollinated plants have over plants pollinated by other species?

Bats generally carry a higher pollen load and travel longer distances. This may be a particular advantage for widely distributed species in tropical forests. By visiting many different flowers, bats can also provide a mixed genetic array of pollen.


If a butterfly or moth species is highly toxic think of two ways the toxins may be accumulated in the insects body.

Either they can be synthesised in the body from non-toxic substances or accumulated from toxic plants which are consumed and stored instead of digested.


Define adaptation.

A modification of structure, physiology or behaviour that suits an organism to its circumstances, in the sense of promoting its relative prospects of survival and/or reproductive success. Adaptations evolve through natural selection.


Define natural selection

A process causing evolutionary change over time (from one generation to the next). Individuals that hold an advantage in terms of survival and reproduction, in competition with other individuals, will pass on characteristics that contribute to that advantage to successive generations, provided that those characteristics have a genetic basis. As a result, these characteristics become more common in the population over successive generations.


Define variation

Differences between individuals of a species, excluding those associated with sex, age or stage of life cycle.


Define competitive exclusion

This term refers to the interaction between two species that require identical resources from the environment, when one or more of those resources is limiting. The result is that one species may outcompete and replace the other.


Which photosynthetic pathway only opens stomata at night and why?

The CAM pathway, which has many similarities to the C4 pathway in terms of process, but has become specialised to maximise the efficiency of water use by only opening stomata at night. Primarily employed by desert plants at higher risk of evaporation loss.


What kind of interaction occurs between the starfish Pisaster ochraceus and the mussel Mytilus californianus.



What kind of interaction occurs between crematogaster ants and whistling-thorn acacia trees.



Define thermoneutral zone.

The range of temperatures over which the metabolic rate is equal to the basal value.