What is the Hidrovia Project?
Scheme to allow shipping along the Parana river, would be 3,442km
Why was the Hidovia stopped in 1997?
Economic benefit was less than the environmental loss
Why did the dissolution of the Hidrovia lead to more problems?
Tyranny of small decisions
Many small scale projects lack higher level scrutiny and management
Where is the Rio Parana?
South America, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia
What is the discharge of the Rio Parana?
What habitat lines the Rio Parana?
What natural climate event changes flow in the Parana?
What poisonous materiel polluted the Brahmaputra?
Which high sediment river joins the Parana?
What is the largest river in Bangladesh?
What is the Jacyreta Dam?
A late dam in the Parana, cost $11Billion built in 1998
What do man made river features do to rivers?
Divert or interrupt flow, reduce link between river and surrounding area
What do small pools at the side of the Parana act as?
Nursery grounds for fish
What does a -0.25 m reduction is average river hight do to the surrounding area if the Parana?
Reduces wetlands by 14%
Why is the worlds largest wetland?
The Pantanal, in the Parana catchment
How much money does a flood cause Bangladesh?
How much erosion can take place on the Brahmaputra each year?
What years did Bangladesh floods exceed 35% of the country?
1988,1998,2004 and 2007
How much more sediment is taken away from Brahmaputra than is replaced?
What is the Brahmaputra Right Embankment?
Large engineering project designed to control one side of the Brahmaputra
Where are reventments used?
Places of importance, e.g Bahadurabad and Ghutail
Where is an example of a permeable groin?
After the Amazon what is the largest river basin in South America?
What is the mouth of the Parana called?
Rio De La Plata
What type of river is the Parana?
Why did the Parana river move north west?
Moving of tectonic activity pushing the plate up and moving the river
Why is the Parana stuck at its current location?
Its pinned up against a fault
Why is the Parana wetland important?
Centre for high biodoversity
Why does the Rio Bermejo have so much sediment?
Full of wind blown sediment
What is the sediment content of the Rio Parana?
What Phenomena happens when the Bermejo joins the Paraguay?
The sediment heavy Bermejo sinks below the Parana. Mixing then forces this sediment up into boils on the river surface
What does poor river mixing cause?
Large differences in Biodiversity on either side of the river due to varying levels of moisture content
By 1989 how many dams has been built on the Parana?
What is the Itaipu Dam
Very large dam with a 7.2km reservoir, cost $19Billion built in 1984
When was the Hidrovia Proposed?
Late 1980’s, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay involved
When does a natural event become Hazardous?
When humans are involved
What are the positives to flooding of the Brahmaputra?
High fish stocks, fertilised land and cleans up arsenic
In a normal flood what % of Bangladesh is flooded?
What % of rain falls between June and September in Bangladesh?
Why is the Brahmaputra sediment content so high?
Created from the many tribs that flow from the Himalayas
Why is Bangladesh flood damage becoming less severe?
Flood planning and forecasting
In 2007 how many people died in the Bangladesh floods?
What did heavy investment in water systems by rich countries lead to?
Solving of problem while ignoring the cause
What is the most essential of all resources?
What percentage of the world lives in places of fragile river threat?
Name some areas of fragile river threat?
Europe, indian subcontinent, mid USA
Where are most of the fragile river threat?
between tropic of cancer and 50 degrees north
How many rivers have a moderate risk assessment?
30 out of the largest 47
What percentage of US rivers are at threat in the US
How many fresh water species are at risk worldwide?
What is the largest river in Spain?
How long is the Ebro river?
What is river metabolism?
Its GPP and carbon fixation levels
How many dams have been built on the Ebro?
How much of riverflow is kept in Ebro reservoirs
What has been the main form of river control and management?
Top down river management, e.g dams
The top ten countries received % of overall water aid?
What do top down strategists say is the amount of money needed to stop water shortages?
What do bottom up strategists say is the amount of money needed to stop water shortages?
How effective are drip irrigation systems?
Why has the cost of water per cubic meter gone up?
More valuable due to better efficiency for less water
What is the average wage with the poor in Bangladesh?
US$220 per person
How large is the Brahmaputra basin?
275,000 Sq miles
Including all the tributaries, how long is the bank length of the Brahmaputra?
How many people in the Jamena-Brahmaputra region have been displaced multiple times?
How many displaced residents in Bangladesh receive any kind of advice?
What are the 4 main forms of alluvial exchange in big rivers?
Flood Plain deposition, Main Channel exchange (bank erosion), Deposition with in channel, sediment load from tributaries
Which river goes from 0.5km to 7km wide in only a 14km stretch or river?
How deep is the Congo river?
According to discharge, what classes as a big river?
over 1000m cubed per second (anything over 17,000 isa mega river)