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Flashcards in General Rivers Deck (70):
1

What is the Hidrovia Project?

Scheme to allow shipping along the Parana river, would be 3,442km

2

Why was the Hidovia stopped in 1997?

Economic benefit was less than the environmental loss

3

Why did the dissolution of the Hidrovia lead to more problems?

Tyranny of small decisions
Many small scale projects lack higher level scrutiny and management

4

Where is the Rio Parana?

South America, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia

5

What is the discharge of the Rio Parana?

16,000 m3/s

6

What habitat lines the Rio Parana?

Wetlands

7

What natural climate event changes flow in the Parana?

El Niño

8

What poisonous materiel polluted the Brahmaputra?

Arsenic

9

Which high sediment river joins the Parana?

Rio Bermejo

10

What is the largest river in Bangladesh?

The Brahmaputra

11

What is the Jacyreta Dam?

A late dam in the Parana, cost $11Billion built in 1998

12

What do man made river features do to rivers?

Divert or interrupt flow, reduce link between river and surrounding area

13

What do small pools at the side of the Parana act as?

Nursery grounds for fish

14

What does a -0.25 m reduction is average river hight do to the surrounding area if the Parana?

Reduces wetlands by 14%

15

Why is the worlds largest wetland?

The Pantanal, in the Parana catchment

16

How much money does a flood cause Bangladesh?

$2Billion

17

How much erosion can take place on the Brahmaputra each year?

800m

18

What years did Bangladesh floods exceed 35% of the country?

1988,1998,2004 and 2007

19

How much more sediment is taken away from Brahmaputra than is replaced?

150 times

20

What is the Brahmaputra Right Embankment?

Large engineering project designed to control one side of the Brahmaputra

21

Where are reventments used?

Places of importance, e.g Bahadurabad and Ghutail

22

Where is an example of a permeable groin?

Katlamari

23

After the Amazon what is the largest river basin in South America?

The Parana

24

What is the mouth of the Parana called?

Rio De La Plata

25

What type of river is the Parana?

Braided River

26

Why did the Parana river move north west?

Moving of tectonic activity pushing the plate up and moving the river

27

Why is the Parana stuck at its current location?

Its pinned up against a fault

28

Why is the Parana wetland important?

Centre for high biodoversity

29

Why does the Rio Bermejo have so much sediment?

Full of wind blown sediment

30

What is the sediment content of the Rio Parana?

6,499 mg/L

31

What Phenomena happens when the Bermejo joins the Paraguay?

The sediment heavy Bermejo sinks below the Parana. Mixing then forces this sediment up into boils on the river surface

32

What does poor river mixing cause?

Large differences in Biodiversity on either side of the river due to varying levels of moisture content

33

By 1989 how many dams has been built on the Parana?

36

34

What is the Itaipu Dam

Very large dam with a 7.2km reservoir, cost $19Billion built in 1984

35

When was the Hidrovia Proposed?

Late 1980's, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay involved

36

When does a natural event become Hazardous?

When humans are involved

37

What are the positives to flooding of the Brahmaputra?

High fish stocks, fertilised land and cleans up arsenic

38

In a normal flood what % of Bangladesh is flooded?

20%

39

What % of rain falls between June and September in Bangladesh?

80%

40

Why is the Brahmaputra sediment content so high?

Created from the many tribs that flow from the Himalayas

41

Why is Bangladesh flood damage becoming less severe?

Flood planning and forecasting

42

In 2007 how many people died in the Bangladesh floods?

3,400

43

What did heavy investment in water systems by rich countries lead to?

Solving of problem while ignoring the cause

44

What is the most essential of all resources?

Water

45

What percentage of the world lives in places of fragile river threat?

80%. 4.8billion

46

Name some areas of fragile river threat?

Europe, indian subcontinent, mid USA

47

Where are most of the fragile river threat?

between tropic of cancer and 50 degrees north

48

How many rivers have a moderate risk assessment?

30 out of the largest 47

49

What percentage of US rivers are at threat in the US

%50

50

How many fresh water species are at risk worldwide?

10-20k

51

What is the largest river in Spain?

Ebro

52

How long is the Ebro river?

930km

53

What is river metabolism?

Its GPP and carbon fixation levels

54

How many dams have been built on the Ebro?

187

55

How much of riverflow is kept in Ebro reservoirs

85%

56

What has been the main form of river control and management?

Top down river management, e.g dams

57

The top ten countries received % of overall water aid?

50%

58

What do top down strategists say is the amount of money needed to stop water shortages?

180Billion

59

What do bottom up strategists say is the amount of money needed to stop water shortages?

10-25billion

60

How effective are drip irrigation systems?

95%

61

Why has the cost of water per cubic meter gone up?

More valuable due to better efficiency for less water

62

What is the average wage with the poor in Bangladesh?

US$220 per person

63

How large is the Brahmaputra basin?

275,000 Sq miles

64

Including all the tributaries, how long is the bank length of the Brahmaputra?

150,000km

65

How many people in the Jamena-Brahmaputra region have been displaced multiple times?

66%

66

How many displaced residents in Bangladesh receive any kind of advice?

2%

67

What are the 4 main forms of alluvial exchange in big rivers?

Flood Plain deposition, Main Channel exchange (bank erosion), Deposition with in channel, sediment load from tributaries

68

Which river goes from 0.5km to 7km wide in only a 14km stretch or river?

Parana

69

How deep is the Congo river?

220meters

70

According to discharge, what classes as a big river?

over 1000m cubed per second (anything over 17,000 isa mega river)