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Flashcards in Parana In Depth Deck (43)
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1

How long is the Parana?

4000k

2

What it the total annual sediment load of the Parana?

150,000,000 tonnes

3

What is the main nutrient in the Parana sediment load?

Phosphorous

4

How large is the Parana river basin?

2,600,000-km squared

5

What percentage of the Rio Parana is in Brazil?

45.6%

6

What three fluvial systems create the Rio De La Plata?

Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay

7

What is the most important change in the horizontal file of the river?

Sete Quedas falls ( now Itaipu Dam), water drops by 180m over 60km

8

What is the main tributary of the Parana by water volume?

Paraguay

9

At the confluence of the Paraguay, how much does the discharge of the river increase by?

from 11,983-16,941 m cubed

10

What are the free floating vegetation called that flows down the Parana?

Camalotes or Aquapes

11

What do high amounts of river vegetation cause?

Retention of sediments

12

What is the bed load composition of the upper Parana

95% quartz

13

What was the maximun recorded discharge in the Parana?

50,000 m cubed

14

What causes the Braided pattern of the Parana?

high availability of bed load sediment relative to suspended load sediment

15

What protected the pantanal from early development?

Isolation from major cities and populations

16

Why does the Pantanal face pressures of development?

Increased plans by the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan governments to develop economy in the area

17

How much of the Pantanal is in Brazil?

85%

18

What does the WWF describe the Pantanal as?

Globally outstanding

19

What hinders discussions about environmentalism in the Pantanal?

Inseficiant information on economic, ecological, social and hydrological factors

20

Where is the Pantanal situation geographically?

The Alto Paraguay Depression, Bra, Uru, Par

21

How is human population distributed in the Pantanal?

Concentrated in small urban areas

22

What is the soil quality of the Pantanal?

Acidic and have low fertility

23

How long have humans lived in the Pantanal?

5000years

24

How many people belonging to the original Guato nation lives in the Pantanal?

Just 50

25

What did the Brazilian government introduce in the 1970s to the Pantanal to increase development? (PRODEPAN)

Program for the development of the Pantanal

26

What were the aim of the many programs introduced to the Pantanal?

The utilisation of the natural resources of the Pantanal and its catchment area

27

What do increased agroindustries do to rivers?

Increase sediment load

28

How many hydroelectric dams are on the Pantanal?

9 (Generate 323MW)

29

Who wrote the article on the Pantanal?

Junk and Cunha 2004

30

What should be avoided in the Pantanal?

Construction of reservoirs as they would modify the hydrological regime of the wetlands