General Terminology And SC Morphology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Terminology And SC Morphology Deck (65):
1

Forebrain is composed of what two structures

Cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon

2

Collections of cell bodies with a common function

Nucleus

3

Layers of gray matter over other parts of the CNS

Cortex

4

Tapering inferior end of the spinal cord: ________

Group of axons that project from the spinal cord inferior to the above structure: _______

Thin strand of pia mater that helps to anchor the conus medullaris to the coccyx: ________

Conus medullaris

Cauda equine

Filum terminal

5

Horn that consists of interneurons who’s processes remain within the spinal cord and projection neurons whose axons collect into ascending sensory pathways

Posterior horn

6

Distinctive region of gray matter that caps the posterior horn

Substantia gelatinosa

7

Part of posterior horn that consists of interneurons and projection neurons that transmit somatic and visceral sensory information

Body of the posterior horn

8

Substantia gelatinosa appears pale because it primarily deals with what kind of fibers

Finely myelinated/unmyelinated sensory fibers that carry pain and temperature information

9

White matter located between the substantia gelatinosa and the surface of the cord

Lissauer’s tract

10

Lower motor neurons are contained in which horn

Anterior horn

11

Autonomic nerves are contained within what area of the spinal cord

Intermediate gray matter

12

Preganglionic sympathetic neurons lie in what segments

T1-L3 primarily in the interomedial smell column

13

Sacral parasympathetics lie in what spinal cord levels

S2-S4 but do not form a distinct horn

14

Collection of large cells located on the medial surface off the posterior horn (T1-L2) that play a prominent role in sensory processing and typically treated as part of the posterior horn

Clark’s nucleus - posterior thoracic nucleus

15

Lamina that is a thin layer of gray matter covering the substantia gelatinosa

Layer 1

16

The substantia gelatinosa is what lamina. Level

Level II

17

Body of the posterior horn are what lamina level

III - VI

18

Lamina level that corresponds to the intermediate gray matter (including Clarke’s nucleus) but also includes extensions into anterior horn

Lamina VII

19

Lamina that comprises some of the interneurons zones of the anterior horn

Lamina VIII

20

Lamina that consists of clusters of motor neurons embedded in the anterior horn

Lamina IX

21

Lamina that is thae zone of gray matter surrounding the central canal

Lamina X

22

Nucleus that modulates the transmission of pain and temperature information
Found at all levels in lamina II

Substantia gelatinosa

23

Sensory processing nucleus found in all levels at Lamina III-VI

Body of posterior horn

24

Posterior spinocerebellar tract cells found at T1-L2 in the VIII lamina nucleus

Clarke’s nucleus

25

Bundle of axon fibers in the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway of SC that carries sensory information from the arms

Fasciculus cuneatus

26

Bundle of axons fibers in the posterior column-dial lemniscus pathway of SC that carries sensory information from the middle thoracic and lower limbs of the body

Fasciculus gracilis

27

Sensory axons enter the spinal cord on what side

Dorsal root ganglion

28

Motor axons emerge the spinal cord from what side

Anterior horn

29

White matter contains what 3 direction of axons

Long descending
Long ascending
Local axons interconnecting different spinal levels

30

Gray matter contains what things

Motor neuron cell bodies
Endings of incoming sensory axons
Second order sensory cell bodies (axons entering ascending tracts to relay sensory information. To brainstem and forebrain)
Endings of long descending tracts and local interneurons

31

Increase total cortical area and total number ofcortical neurons

Folding into gyri and sulci

32

Huge fiber bundle that joins the two hemispheres

Corpus callosum

33

Lobe that extends from the frontal pole to central sulcus
Contained by the cingulate sulcus medially and the lateral sulcus laterally

Continues inferiorly as the orbital part of the _______ lobe

Frontal lobe

34

Lobe that extends to the lateral sulcus to the line connecting the top of the parietoccipital sulcus and preoccipital notch

Temporal lobe

35

Lobe that extends from the central sulcus to an imaginary line connecting the top of the parietoccipital sulcus and preoccipital notch

Parietal lobe

36

Strip of cortex that encircles the telencephalon-diencephalon junction

Limbic lobe

37

The nervous system develops from the neural tube that contains a central cavity. This cavity persists in adults as

A system of interconnected ventricles

Lateral ventricles —> interventricular foraen -> 3rd ventricle —> cerebral aqueduct —> 4th ventricle —> central canal

38

White matter that connects cortical areas within the same sulci/gyri

Arcuate fibers

39

White matter that connects cortical areas within the same hemisphere

Longitudinal/Association fasciculi

40

White mater that connects cortical areas within R/L hemispheres

Commissural tracts

41

White matter that connects cortical areas with other body regions

Projection tracts

42

Largest fiber bundle in the brain that interconnects the two cerebral hemispheres

Corpus callosum

43

Additional area of the cerebral cortex not included in the five lobes
Concealed by frontal, parietal and temporal lobes

Insula

44

What four gyrus make up the lateral surface of the frontal lobe

Precentral gyrus
Superior
Middle
Inferior gyrus

45

The primary motor cortex is housed within the ________ Gyrus

Precentral gyrus

46

Also within the precentral gyrus are the _________ and _________ motor areas
Functionally related to the planning and initiation of voluntary movements

Premotor and supplementary motor

47

The parietal lobe is made up of what three gyrus

Postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus

48

Functions of parietal gyri

Postcentral: primary somatosensory cortex; controls w/ processing of tactile and proprioceptive information and sensory localization

Inferior - language comprehension (only on left)

Remainder - spatial orientation and directing attention

49

Auditory areas are contained within what lobe

Temporal lobe

50

Temporal lobe composed of what gyri

Superior middle and inferior gyri

51

Four functions of the temporal lobe

Primary auditory cortex
Wernicke’s area - comprehension
Higher order processing of visual information
Learning and memory

52

Visual areas are contained within the ______ lobe

Occipital lobe

53

A wedge shaped area between the parietoccipital and calcarine sulcus

Cuneus

54

Inferior to the calcarine sulcus and continuous with the parahippocampal gyrus is the ______ gyrus

Lingual

55

The primary visual cortex is contained within the _____ sulcus

Calcarine sulcus

56

The limbic lobe is composed of two gyri

The cingulate and parahippocampal gyri

57

Lies beneath the uncus of the temporal lobe

Amygdala

58

Four divisions of the diencephalon

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalaus
Subthalamus

59

Nearly every pathway carrying specific information bound for the cerebral cortex from the subcortical site includes a stop in what brain center

Thalamus

60

What brain region controls the autonomic nervous system

Hypothalamus

61

Divisions of the brainstem

Midbrain - continuous with the diencephalon
Pons
Medulla - continuous with the spinal cord

62

Lobes of the cerebellum

Anterior - affferents from the spinal cord- coordinates trunk and limb movements

Flocculonodular lobe - recieves afferents from the vestibular system, invovled in controlling eye movements and postural adjustments to gravity

Posterior lobe -recieves afferents from the cerebral cortex via the pons; plays ar ole in coordination of voluntary movements

63

What are the basal nuclei

Caudate nucleus
Lenticular nucleus

64

Axons of primary afferents enter the CNS with/without crossing the midline

Without

65

With a few exceptions, the components of sensory primary afferents are all _______

Ipsilateral