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Flashcards in Genetic Engineering Deck (23):

What is Selective Breeding?

It’s a method of breeding that allows only individuals with desired characteristics to reproduce.


What is Hybridization?

It’s a breeding technique that crosses dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms.


What is a Hybrid?

The result of breeding 2 dissimilar individuals.


What is inbreeding?

Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms. It preserves unique characteristics.


What is used to new kinds of bacteria and plants?

Radiation & Chemicals


What is Polypoidy?

When the cells of an organisms have multiple sets of chromosomes


What is a transgenic organism?

An organism that has had DNA from another organism inserted into the DNA of its cells


What is a Restrictor Enzyme?

It cuts DNA at a specific sequence.


What is Ligase?

It acts as glue & “glues” DNA together. It is used when inserting genes into DNA.


Describe how large amounts of Human Insulin are made.

Human Insulin Gene cut using Restrictor Enzymes. Placed in plasmid using same restrictor enzyme. Ligase glues into plasmid. Offspring are used to retrieve insulin.


Why do we use transgenics?

To produce important substances for health & industries, to produce cancer fighting substances, new types of fibers, to make insect resistance crops, bigger animals for food.


What is a somatic cell?

A body cell (Diploid)


What is an Enucleated cell?

Cell without Nucleus


What is a surrogate mother?

Female that carries another Female's Embryo.


Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism is known as

Genetic Engineering


What is DNA extraction?

Using chemicals to remove DNA from cells.


What are used to cut DNA?

Restrictor Enzymes


How does DNA electrophoresis work?

DNA is cut using Restrictor enzymes (everyone’s DNA will cut at different places because everyone’s DNA is different). Samples are then placed on a tray that has a gel on it. Electricity is run through the gel and the pieces being to move toward the positive pole (since DNA is negatively charged). The larger pieces move slower than the smaller ones so you end up with a unique Banding Pattern.


What is DNA electrophoresis good for?

DNA fingerprinting (Crime Scenes) & Paternity Tests


What is Recombinant DNA?

A piece of DNA that has genes from another organism.


What is PCR used for?

To make many copies of genes or pieces of DNA


Explain how PCR works

DNA is heated up so it separates. DNA polymerase is added (along with nucleotides) and each strand of separated DNA can now make copies of itself when it is cooled down. This process is repeated over and over until many copies of that piece of DNA are made. * “DNA Primers” are also involved, which are needed for DNA polymerase to being making copies of the DNA].


What is a plasmid?

A circular bacterial piece of DNA