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Flashcards in Genetic Processes Deck (147):
1

Smallest structural unit of matter?

The atom

2

Atoms bond to form what?

Molecular compounds and ionic compounds

3

What are molecular compounds important to biology?

Amino acids
Fatty acids
Glycerol
Nucleotides

4

What are very large, complex molecular compounds?

Macromolecules

5

What is starch/amylose?

A macromolecule consisting of 1000s of glucoses bonded together

6

What is Protein?

A macromolecule conisting of 100s to 1000s of amino acids

7

What are triglycerides?

Glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acids.

8

What are nucleic acids?

DNA and RNA. Millions of nucleotides bonded together.

9

What are macromolecules that assemble into functional groupings?

Supermolecular assembiles

10

Membranes are what?

A supermolecular assembly consisting of carbohydrates, phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol

11

Ribosomes are what?

A supermolecular assembly consisting of protein and ribosomal RNA

12

Microtubules and microfilaments are what?

Supermolecular assemblies, collections of protein

13

The nucleolus is what?

A supermolecular assembly consisting of protein and RNA

14

Supermolecular assemblies organize into what functional units?

Organelles?

15

Nucleus

A porous double membrane surrounding DNA, RNA, nucleolus

16

Mitochondria?

Double membrane surrounding enzymes, dna and ribosomes

17

Chloroplast

Double membrane surrounding enzymes, dna and ribosomes

18

Lysosome

Single membrane surrounding digestive enzymes

19

Bone cell

Osteocyte

20

Nerve cell

Neuron

21

Muscle cell

myocyte

22

Skin cell

Epidermal cell

23

Whiteblood cell

A leucocyte

24

Red blood cell

Erthrocyte

25

Platelet

Thrombocyte

26

List tissue examples

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve, plant,

27

What are the levels of biological organization?

Subatomic particles, atom, molecular/ionic compounds, macromolecules, supermolecular assemblies, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems, organisms.

28

What is biology?

The study of life

29

What makes something "alive"

-respiration
-excretion
-feeding
-growth
-movement
-reproduction
-irritability

30

What is respiration?

Obtaining energy as a result of chemical changes, usually decomposition of food as a result of combination with oxygen. Take in oxygen, give off carbon dioxide. Usually accompanied with rise in temp.

31

What is excretion?

Elimination of toxic/waste substances from the body of an organism. Not the same as egestion of undigested food.

32

What is feeding?

Essential preliminary to respiration. Taking in food.

33

What is growth?

An increase in size, usually involves an organism becoming more complicated and efficient. (tadpole to frog)

34

What is movement?

Can be locomotion, or restricted to certain areas, like leaves in plants, or result due to growth.

35

What is reproduction?

Handing life on to new individuals, resulting in continued existence of species. Can be on cellular level, not always species level.

36

What is irritability?

Ability to respond to stimulus. More advanced the greater the range of sensitivity. Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis. Flight or fight response, ex.

37

What are the types of nucleic acids?

Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid

38

Chromosomes are what?

Made up of DNA that is genetic material. Contain codes to make proteins for your body.

39

What is RNA?

Translates DNA nucleotide codes and instruction the ribosomes how to assemble amino acids into proteins for your body

40

What is a gene?

A segment of DNA that provides the blueprint for making one protein

41

Atomic level, nucleic acids are made of what?

Phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

42

Higher level, nucleic acids are made of what?

They are polymers made up of monomers. Made up of nucleotide chains. Are polymers of nucleotides.

43

What is a nucleotide made of?

A pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base

44

What are the pentose sugars in DNA and RNA?

Deoxyribose and Ribose

45

What are phosphodiester linkages?

The linkages that hold the nucleotides in RNA and DNA together. These linkages are formed between carbon 3 of the sugar and a phosphate group that is associated with carbon 5 of the sugar.

46

The backbone of DNA is what?

Alternating sugars and phosphates. Double stranded.

47

How are polymer chains held together in DNA?

Hydrogen bonding between their nitrogen bases.

48

How is base pairing complementary?

Each position with a purine is found on one strand a pyrimidine is found on the other

49

What is a purine?

Have a double ring structure

50

what is a pyrimidine?

Have one ring.

51

How are DNA strands arranged?

They are antiparallel (one side is flipped). Strands form a double helix with a right handed twist.

52

What is another name for a tri-nucleotide?

Codon

53

What is the cell cycle?

2 stages: growth and division

54

Why do cells divide when they grow?

The surface area to volume ratio goes down.

55

How do new cells compare to divided ones?

Genetically identical.

56

Cell division=

mitosis+cytokinesis

57

What is mitosis?

Division of nuclear material so each daughter cell receives the same number of chromosomes.

58

What is cytokinesis?

The division of cell organelles and cytoplasm

59

When are chromosomes visible?

Prophase

60

Why is cell division needed?

Growth of organism
Regeneration of lost or damaged tissues
Maitenance of body

61

What are the stages of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

62

What happens in interphase?

-longest period
-G1: normal functions, growth
-Synthesis: replicated DNA molecules visible as chromatin, centrioles split and become 2 centrosomes
-G2: additional organelles, more growth

63

What happens in prophase?

-longest phase of mitosis
Early: chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes (sister chromatids), centrosomes move to opposite poles,

Late: nuclear membrane disappears, nucleolus disappears, centrosomes begin producing spindle fibres, chromosomes begin moving to equator

64

What happens in Metaphase?

-sister chromatids move to equator and align themselves randomly. nuclear membrane gone. (end of prophase)

65

What happens in anaphase?

-spindle fibres contract and shorten
-centromeres split apart
-sister chromatids become daughter chromosomes
-move to opposite poles

66

What happens in telophase?

-chromosomes reach poles
-spindle fibres break down
-nuclear membrane and nucleolus begin to reform
-chromosomes elongate

67

What happens in cytokinesis (plants specifically?)

Cleavage furrow forms as membrane constricts.
Plants: vesicles travel to equator and fuse together, form cell plate which becomes two cell walls

68

What are some special cases regarding mitosis?

Cancer cells which divide unchecked, specialized cells like muscle and nerve that don't divide

69

What is malignant cancer cells that migrate?

metastasis

70

What is meiosis?

Form of cell division where gametes with half the amount of DNA are produced

Diploid (2n) to haploid (n)

71

Where does meiosis occur?

Gonads (testes or ovaries)

72

What is the production of gametes in males and females?

Spermatogenesis and oogenesis

73

What are the cells called that undergo meiosis in males and females?

Spermatogonium and oogonium

74

What is interphase 1 of meiosis?

Same as mitosis

75

What are the phases of meiosis?

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

76

What happens in prophase I

-longest and most complex (90%)
-many the same (centrosomes, spindles, nucleolus and nucleus, condense)

EARLY
-synapsis: -form bivalent, then tetrad

-crossing over

LATE
-pairs brought to centre

77

How many pairs in a DNA?

50-250 million

78

How many genes human genome?

25-30 000

79

List the three foundational statements of the cell theory

-to be living must contain one or more cells
-cells are the smallest form of living organisms
-cells can only come from pre-existing cells through reproduction

80

How would lack of spindle fibres affect mitosis?

Would inhibit or make impossible because the sister chromatids would not be pulled apart and there would be random division in cytokinesis.

81

What is an allele?

Different forms of the same gene

82

How are karyotypes prepared?

-cells are obtained then treated so they are stopped during metaphase
-a stain makes the banding patterns on the chromosomes clearly visible
-paired and sorted longest to sex
-autosomes numbered 1-22
-sex chromosomes labeled x or y

83

How are chromosome pairs recognized?

-banding pattern
-length
-centromere location

84

Somatic cell

-preforms normal operations. Excludes reproductive cells

85

How long does the cell cycle take?

Usually 12-24 hours

86

How is DNA semi-conservative replicated?

1. Protein unwinds the double helix into a ladder. They then unzip the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds in the base pairs
2. Complimentary base pairing. Enzymes travel along polynucleotide strands and attach complementary nucleotides, A-T G-C G-C T-A
3. Enzymes travel along polynucleotide strands and create the phosphodiester linkages

87

What are homologous chromosomes?

Same size, banding pattern, and centromere location. Contain alleles.

88

Define bivalent

Homologous chromosomes that come together in prophase but aren't completely wound yet

89

Define tetrad

Two homologous chromosomes side by side with 4 visible chromatids

90

How do chromatids compare in a tetrad?

Joined by centromere: Sister
Not joined: Non sister

91

Define allele and locus

Locus: position on gene. Allele is gene in certain position carrying same type of info in two homologous chromosomes.

92

What is crossing over and how does it happen?

-Exchange of DNA between non sister chromatids at the chiasma (pl. chiasmata) (The complete "X". Specific site called the cross-over point)
-highly variable and random

93

What happens in metaphase 1?

Tetrads align on the equatorial plate
independent assortment occurs

94

What is independent assortment?

-random arranging of pairs in metaphase
-formula is 2^n

95

What is Anaphase 1?

Homolgous chromosomes separate and move toward poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at centromere

96

What happens in Teleophase 1?

Chromosomes reach the opposite poles. Each pole has haploid set. Spindle fibres begin to break down. Nuclear membrane begins to reform. Nucleolus reappears. Chromosomes uncoil.

97

What happens in cytokinesis 1?

Membrane pulled inwards and organelles divided to create genetically different haploid daughters.

98

How does Meisosis 2 compare with 1?

-almost no interphase 2
-all the same, just 23 chromosomes organized in 2 cells
-cytokinesis produces 4 genetically different haploid daughter cells called gametes

99

Why is genetic variation good?

-important to population as raw material for natural selection
-increased genetic variability increases chances of survival

100

What are the sexual 3 sources of genetic variation?

1. Crossing over
2. Independent assortment
3. Random fertization

101

What is fertization?

-the fusion of a sperm and egg to form a zygote

102

What is a zygote?

-a fertized egg

103

Define biotechnology

Application of science and engineering to the direct or indirect use of living organisms (or parts or products) in their natural or modified forms.

104

What are historic uses of biotechnology?

6000 BC Yeast used by Sumerians and Babylonians to make beer

4000 BC Egyptians discovered how to make bread using yeast. China learned how to make yogurt and moulds to produce cheese and fermentation to make vinegar and wine

2000 BC Domestication of plants and animals

105

What is selective breeding?

The process of artificial manipulation of a species by humans to produce offspring with some desired characteristics.

106

Biotechnology has what general uses?

-understanding inheritance and gene expression
-understand and treat genetic disorders
-forensics and crime investigations (DNA fingerprinting)
-economic benefits

107

What industrial applications of biotechnology?

1. Medial and health care
2. Food and crop production (beer, cheese)
3. Non food uses of crops (Biofuels)
4. Enviromental uses (bioremediation, treating waste)

108

What are the applications of biotechnology in health care?

1. Human Genome Project
2. Genetic Engineering
3. Reproductive technology

109

What is the Human Genome Project?

-started 1990 to 2003
-publicly funded by universities and government agencies around world
-mapped out 23 000 protein coding genes in our genome

110

What is genetic engineering?

A form of biotechnology used to produce molecules of DNA containing new genes or novel combinations of genes, usually for insertion into a host cell for cloning.

-gene splicing
-genetically modified organism
-gene therapy
-transgenic organisms
-cloning

111

What is recombinant DNA?

DNA formed by combining segments of DNA from two different sources

112

What is gene splicing?

Cutting DNA of a gene to add base pairs (done chemically)

113

How is recombinant DNA formed?

1. Identify individual genes of interest
2. Produce a copy of the gene (often using bacteria)
3. Insert the gene into the desired organism and regulate the expression of the gene in a useful way

114

What are desirable uses of Recombinant DNA technology?

1. Insulin injected into bacteria
2. Producing safe and effective vaccines
3. Increasing milk production
4. Hemophiliacs can get blood clotting stuff from bacteria

115

What is gene therapy and what are the two types?

Replacing defective genes with healthy genes
1. Somatic cell therapy
2. Germ-line Cell therapy

116

What are stem cells?

Cells that are not yet specialized to perform a particular function. They have the potential to differentiate into any cell.

117

What are the fates of a stem cell?

They can:
1. divide repeatedly and create more
2. differentiate to produce cells needed for tissue growth and repair.

118

What are the types of stem cells?

Adult multipotent stem cells
Embryonic stem cells

119

What are Adult multipotent stem cells?

-present in humans throughout life
-replace lost or damaged tissue
-limited plasticity (certain tissues)
-located in bone marrow, intestine, and nose

120

What are embryonic stem cells?

-found in embryo blastocyst (hollow ball of cells) 4-5 days after fertilization
-are completely plastic

121

What are stem cells controversial?

-only found in human embryos
-to harvest you must destroy the embryo
-debate as to where life begins

122

What is the problem with stem cells?

They are more susceptible to cancer and other diseases.

123

What are potential uses of stem cells?

-strokes
-spinal cord injuries
-cancers
-wound healing
-arthritis
-blindness
-deafness

124

What are clones?

Any organism whose genetic information is identical to that of a parent organism from which it was created.

125

What was the first thing to be cloned?

Tadpoles in 1952

126

Who was Dolly?

-first mammal successfully cloned in 1996
-one out of 277 attempts

127

What are current cloning projects?

-endangered mountain sheep (2001)
-other endangered or recently extinct animals
-genetically modified pigs for human organ donation

128

What are the risks of cloning?

90-95% of attempts fail
-clones that do survive are often in poor health and die of mysterious causes
-up to 4% of genes in cloned mice do not function properly

129

What are genetically modified organisms?

An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

130

What is recombinant DNA technology?

Uses DNA from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes

131

What are transgenic animals?

An organism formed by the insertion of foreign genetic material into the cells of organisms. DNA is removed from a donor organism and foreign DNA fragments are inserted into the nucleus of a fertilized egg.

132

What are examples of reproductive technology?

-fertility drugs
-intrauterine insemination
-in vitro insemination
-egg freesing
-embryo transfer
-genetic screening

133

How does biotechnology improve plant breeding?

Increase
-pest resistance
-seed production
-nutrient content
-tolerance of harsh conditions
-herbicide resistance

134

What are the two key outcomes of meiosis?

1. Genetic reduction (make a haploid)
2. Genetic recombination (different combinations of alleles. Increases genetic variation

135

What are some errors in chromosome structure possible?

Deletion
Duplication
Inversion
Translocation

136

What is non-disjunction?

failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis.Can occur in anaphase 1 or 2

137

What are trisomies and monosomies?

Tri: Loss of a chromosome due to non-disjunction
Mon: Gain of chromosome
Most result in death, some lead to genetic disorders like downsyndrome

138

What is prenatal genetic testing?

Tests performed on a fetus to look for genetic based abnormalities.
Initially involve blood tests and ultrasound. Also maternal blood tests and invasive tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling)

139

What are the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?

-testes
-4 viable sperm cells
-spermatogonium
-divided equally

-both produce haploid cells

-ovaries
-1 egg cell
-oogonium
-cytoplasm unequally divided, one polar body

140

What is artificial insemination?

Sperm are collected and concentrated before being artificially introduced into the female reproductive system. Typically the semen is stored for a period of time. Makes high quality semen readily available.

141

What is Embryo transfer?

An egg that has been fertilized artificially is transferred into a recipient female's uterus.

142

What is invitro fertilization?

-eggs are combined with sperm in laboratory glassware then placed in uterus of mother
-helps couples who cannot conceive on their own

143

What is preimplantation genetic diagnosis?

-allows for diagnosis of genetic disorders soon after fertilization. IVF used. Zygotes allowed to develp for 2 days then tested
Also used to engineer a genetic match in a sibling for sick children.

144

How is gene cloning done?

1. Isolate segment of DNA to clone, choose a vector. Vectors act as carriers of the DNA to be cloned so that the DNA can be copied in a foreign cell. Usually a plasmid in a bacteria. (Small, circular pieces of DNA)

2. Insert the chromosomal DNA into the vector. Relies on use of reagents that can cut DNA and help different pieces join together. Resulting DNA is callled recombinant DNA

3. Treat foriegn cells, usually bacteria, so they take up the recombinant DNA. Once inserted many copies will be made by the host cell

145

What is therapeutic cloning vs. reproductive?

T: Produces genetically identical cells to treat diseases
R: Produce a genetically identical organism

Both use somatic cell nuclear transfer

146

What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?

1. Cells obtained
2. Nucleus removed from egg cell removed, nucleus with desired genes is obtained
3. Nucleus fused with donor egg
4. Cells are cloned

147

What are induced pluripotent stem cells?

Specialized adult stem cells that have been induced to return to a stem-cell like state