Genetic variation and its control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Genetic variation and its control Deck (11):
1

How is genetic information passed on?

Genetic information is passed on from the parent to the offspring contained in chromosomes in the nucleus.

2

What is a gene and where is it found?

A gene is a section of DNA, which carries a code for a particular protein. Gene's are found in chromosomes.

3

What are the differences in species known as?

Variation.

4

Environmental variation factors:

-Climate
-Diet
-Accidents
-Culture
-Lifestyle

5

Sexual reproduction:

Produces offspring that are not identical to the parents.

6

Asexual reproduction:

Where only one parent creates multiple, identical copies of itself.

7

What is the fusion of gametes called?

Fertilisation.

8

Cuttings:

Where a branch from the parent plant is cut off, and is put into damp compost. Eventually, new roots form and a new plant is produced.

9

Tissue culture:

Where a tissue sample is scraped from the parent plant and is put into a petri dish with agar jelly containing nutrients. Many plantlets form and are then put into compost to grow.

10

What happens in adult cell cloning?

1.the nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell and discarded
2.the nucleus is removed from an adult body cell and injected into the egg cell
3.an electric shock is applied to make the egg cell begin to divide to form an embryo
4.while it is still a ball of cells, the embryo is inserted into the womb of an adult female
5.the embryo continues to grow and develop
The new individual is genetically identical to the animal that donated the nucleus from one of its body cells.

11

What is genetic modification?

Enzymes are used to cut pieces of DNA from an organism, and is placed in a gap between DNA for another organism. The other organism gains the characteristic from the bit of DNA it is given.