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Flashcards in Genetically Modified Crops Deck (13)
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0

Difference between GM crops and GE crops

All crops are GM crops selected and bred over 16000 years to select desirable characteristics eg yield and resistance to pests
GE crops are produced using recombinant DNA (DNS from more than one source)

1

What are 4 examples of new biotechnology techniques?

Agrobacterium based
Particle acceleration
Electroporation
Microinjection

2

What is the agrobacterium based technique?

Bacterium responsible for crown hall disease in plants
Uses disarmed tumour inducing plasmid to carry genes of interest into a cell
Two thirds of all GM crops have been produced using this system

3

What is particle acceleration?

DNA coated gold particles are fired into growing plant tissues
DNA taken up and whole plants regenerated
Some success with GM soybean

4

What is the electroporation technique?

Electric current alters protoplasm membranes permitting uptake of DNA
(Protoplasts are plants cells with no cell wall)
Used in GM rice production

5

What is the Microinjection technique?

DNA injected into cytoplasm or nucleus directly
Very labour intensive
Used with GM tomatoes

6

Which countries are the main growers of GM crops?

USA
Argentina
Brazil
India
Canada
China

7

What are the main GM crops planted and what are the main traits?

Soybean
Maize
Cotton
Canola or rapeseed

Herbicide tolerance
Insect resistance
Stacked genes

8

What traits are currently being developed for GM crops?

Colour, durability, vaccine delivery
Drought resistance, salt tolerance, temperature resistance, heavy metal tolerance

9

Advantages of GM crops?

Improved targeting of insect pests
Reduced human exposure (especially spray operators)
Reduced pesticide use and environmental contamination
Improved yields for resource poor farmers
Pest control throughout a plant throughout a growing season
Better integration with other methods than chemicals
Better quality crops

10

What are the dangers of chemical pesticides?

Can cause cancer, birth defects, sterility, behavioural and neurological problems
1-5 million people poisoned globally per year, 20-40000 deaths
Most in developing countries

11

Disadvantages of GM crops?

Toxicity of GM crops (unlikely)
Invasiveness of plants/genes
Antibiotic marker genes
Resistance development to expressed toxins

12

How much drooling worldwide to GM crops occupy?

13% with nectar age increasing at about 10% per year