Genetics exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Genetics > Genetics exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetics exam 2 Deck (46):
1

Genomics

Branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution,and mapping of genomes

2

Comparative genomics

The science of comparison of genomic features among organisms bc all genomes presumably arose from a common ancestral genome, relationships between genomes help to ID significance of those features and help determine genotype - phenotype relationships

3

Paleosequencing

The study of the past (evolutionary history) through the examination of preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms

4

Synthetic genomics

Uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms or artificial gene synthesis to create new DNA/chromosomes or entire life forms

5

Mass spectrometry

An analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

6

Interactome

The whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell. Specifically refers to the physical interactions among molecules but can also describe sets of indirect interactions among genes

7

Developmental genetics

Study of regulatory processes that control cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis which is the process that gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy. Used to study cell fate, cell determination and differentiation and pattern formation

8

Determination

Process by which a cell or part of an embryo becomes restricted to a given developmental pathway

9

Differentiation

The process by which a cell becomes dedicated to perform a specific fxn. More than 250 general types of cells in the human body. Process that takes place during development that determines which genres are expressed and hence what type of cell will result

10

Totipotency

Ability of a single cell to divide and produce ALL of the differentiated cells in an organism

11

Pleuripotency

The ability of a single cell to divide and produce some but not all types of differentiated cells in an organism

12

Unipotent

The ability of a single cell to divide and produce a single kind of differentiated cell in an organism

13

Gap gened

Delete groups of adjacent segments

14

Pair-rule genes

Delete same part of pattern in every other segment

15

Segment polarity genes

Affect polarity of segment part of segment replaced by mirror image of part of another segment

16

Homeobox containing genes

Genes that contain a highly conserved sequence of 180 nucleotides called the homeobox which encodes for the 60 AA homeodomain found in homeodomain txn factor proteins

Play a major role in vertebrates with regard to craniotomy-caudal segmentation, not only among main body axis but w/in the development of many organs
Activated in 3–>5 direction
Loss of function mutations result in posterior to anterior transformation
Gain of function result in anterior to posterior transformations

17

T box genes

Containe conserved T-box coding 180-200 AA, family includes up to 100 genes, plays role in inducing mesodermal germ layer and in coordinating the outgrowth of the arm or leg

18

Helix-loop-helix

Code for txn factor, basic regions of proteins bind to DNA, involved in homeodimerization and heterodimerization, important in myogenesis

19

Forkhead (fox) genes

The of helix-loop-helix family, expressed in many developing organs throughout the body

20

Heterotaxy syndrome

Refers to the lack of differentiation of right-sided and left-sided organs during fetal development

21

Hardy Weinberg assumptions

1. Large population
2. Random mating’
3. No mutations
4. No migration
5. No natural selection

22

Positive assortative mating

A tendency of like individuals to mate

23

Negative assortative mating

A tendency of unlike individuals to mate

24

Natural selection

The differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype

25

Migration

Movement of populations, groups or individuals. Enable gene flow- the movement of genes from one population into another

26

Genetic drift

Change in frequency of gene varian in a population due to random sampling of organisms

27

Centriole

A small, cylindrical cell organelle located near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis

28

Nucleosome

Basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around 8 core his tone proteins

29

Chromatosome

A hi stone octamer, one molecule of linker hi stone, and 166bp DNA. The linker histone is a binding agent acting like a finger holding down the DNA preventing its release

30

Epigenetics

A heritable alteration of phenotype because of altered chromatin structure (histone modification, acetylation) or the modification of DNA (methylation) without changing the DNA sequence

31

Leigh syndrome

Degeneration of the CNS— loss of fxn of mitochondria typically don’t make it to adulthood

32

Reading frame

3 ways in which the sequence can be read in groups of 3. Each different way of reading encodes a different amino acid sequence

33

Translation

Binding of AA to tRNA- charging
Initiation of translation
Elongation of peptide chain
Termination

34

Operon

Promoter + additional sequences that control txn + structural genes

35

Somatic mutations

Arise in tissues other than those that produce gametes, impact restricted to the individual

36

Germ-line mutations

Arise in tissues that produce gametes
Can be passed to offspring

37

Loss of function metatio

Causes the complete or partial absence of a normal protein fxn
Usually reessive

38

Neutral mutation

Missense mutation that alters the AA sequence but does not change the fxn of the protein

39

Silent mutation

Mutation changes the codon sequence but not the AA

40

Missense mutation

Base substitution that results in a different AA

41

Nonsense mutation

Mutation that changes a sense codon into a STOP codon

42

Forward mutation

Mutation that alters the wild-type phenotype

43

Reverse mutation

Mutation that changes the mutant phenotype back into the wild-type

44

Gain of function

Produces an entirely new trait or causes it to appear in an inappropriate tissue or at an inappropriate time

45

Suppressor mutation

Genetic changes that hides or suppresses the effect of another mutation

Intragenic: occurs in same gene as that containing the mutation being suppressed

Intergenic: occurs in gene other than the one bearing the original mutation

46

Retrotransposons

Elements that transpose through an RNA intermediate
RNA is transcribed from a DNA transposable elements
RNA is copied back to another DNA a site using reverse transcriptase
Only done through replicative transposition
More common than DNA transposing in eukaryotes