Flashcards in Genetics II Deck (29):
What is incomplete dominance?
? Is when both alleles for a specific gene is expressed in a heterozygous individual. Neither allele is considered dominant or recessive and hence the characteristic expressed is a ‘blend’ or ‘mixture’ of both characteristics.
What is co-dominance?
Is when both alleles for a specific gene is expressed in a heterozygous individual. Neither allele is considered dominant or recessive and hence the characteristic expressed are two characteristic co- existing with another, not blended.
What is a pedigree?
A flow chart that shows the relationship within a family over generations. And is useful for detecting patterns in a genetic disorder and identifying genotypes of family members.
What is simple dominance?
For the first 22 pairs of chromosomes as they have the exact same type of gene, patterns of inheritance are identical for both genders. There is an equal chance for both genders to acquire a specific gene whether it be a characteristic or a disease.
What are x- linked genes?
Genes that code for characteristics that are only on the x- chromosome.
Explain which gender suffers the most genetic disorders and why?
Male suffers the most genetic disorders as they can’t have a dominant genes to mask the recessive.
-Alteration to genes
-Occur naturally but are rare (1 in a mil)
-Has consequences to the organism’s characteristics
- Affected gene stopped the production of melanin, a gene which gives skin and hair its colour
-Therefore, no pigmentation
-CONSEQUENCE: appears to have white- pink skin, hair and eyes
- Person with an extra chromosome on their 21st chromosome, therefore has three chromosomes instead of having a pair
- CONSEQUENCE: affects growth and development
How can the occurrence of mutation increase during one’s lifetime?
Exposure to high amounts of UV/ nuclear radiation and strong chemicals such as pesticides
List some examples of bad mutations?
-Cancer, by tar in cigarettes
-Or by UV rays which damages the DNA
List some examples of good mutations?
-Seedless fruit, disease- resistant crops
How are mutations inherited by their offspring?
Mutation that occur in sex cells can be passed down
What are genetic mutations?
Involve a change in DNA due to external factors such as UV/ radiation/ chemicals
What does mutated codons include?
-Code for the same amino acid, in this case there is no change
-Code for a different amino acid- in this case there might be a slight change
-Code for a ‘stop’- in this case cause drastic changes as it shortens the polypeptide
What are chromosomal mutations?
Include variations in the number of chromosomes
What is a genome?
Complete set of genetic material existing inside an organism or cell
What is the Human Genome Project?
-A project that happened between 1990- 2003
-Purpose to map out the position of genes in the human genome making discoveries such as:
-3 billion bases, 32000 genes, 260000 proteins
What does the genetic map show? And what does it do?
-Show the position of specific genes on chromosomes
-Use it to attempt to treat genetic disease, replacing faulty genes in plants and animals, and make new medicines
How does the offspring inherit characteristics?
-Since genes carry characteristics by producing proteins, these get passed down and the offspring inherit these characteristics
What are genes on a homologous pair of chromosomes said to be 'identical'?
- As they both code for different forms
- Even though one can code for blue whilst the other brown since both genes code for eye colour
What are the different form of the same known as?
Why do we have two alleles for different characteristics but only show one?
Because one allele is dominant and the other is recessive.
What does a lower case represent?
A recessive gene
What does an upper case represent?
A dominant gene
What is a genotype?
A set of alleles for that type of gene
What are the three possibilities of genotypes?
What does our genotype determine?
Our physical characteristics aka phenotype