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Flashcards in Genetics Quiz Deck (27)
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1
Q

Science of heredity

A

Genetics

2
Q

Alternative for of a single gene passed from generation to generation

A

Allele

3
Q

Organism with two of the same alleles for a particular trait

A

Homozygous

4
Q

Organism with two different alleles for a particular trait

A

Heterozygous

5
Q

Genetic makeup of an individual

A

Genotype

6
Q

Observable characteristics or outward expression of an allele pair

A

Phenotype

7
Q

States that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed

A

Law of segregation

8
Q

Type of heterozygous organisms

A

Hybrids

9
Q

States that two or more pairs of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation

A

Law of independent assortment

10
Q

New combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment

A

Genetic recombination

11
Q

Occurrence of one or more extra sets of all chromosomes in an organism

A

Polyploidy

12
Q

Individual who is heterozygous for a recessive disorder

A

Carrier

13
Q

Diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations

A

Pedigree

14
Q

The heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes

A

Incomplete dominance

15
Q

Both alleles are exposed in the heterozygous condition

A

Codominance

16
Q

Forms of inheritance that are determined by more than two alleles

A

Multiple alleles

17
Q

One allele hiding the effects of another allele

A

Epistasis

18
Q

Determines an individuals gender

A

Sex chromosomes

19
Q

22 pairs of chromosomes

A

Autosomes

20
Q

Traits controlled by genes located on the X chromosomes

A

Sex-linked traits

21
Q

Phenotypic traits that arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes

A

Polygenic traits

22
Q

Pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph

A

Karyotype

23
Q

Protective caps on chromosomes

A

Telomeres

24
Q

Cell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly

A

Nondisjunction

25
Q

Austrian monk born in 1822

Called the father of genetics because he was the first to study patterns of inheritance

A

Gregor Mendel

26
Q

Passing of traits, or characteristics, from parents to an offspring

A

Heredity

27
Q

Why Pea Plants

A
  1. It’s easy to control mating (pea plants are enclosed)
  2. Easy to grow, grow fast, produce lots of offspring
  3. They come in two clearly different forms