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Flashcards in Genital Tract Infections Deck (36)
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1

What spirochete bacterium causes syphillis?

Treponema pallidum

2

What bacterium causes bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis.

3

What bacteria causes chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

4

What bacteria causes gonorrhoea?

Neisseria gonorrhoea

5

What organism causes vulvovaginal candidiasis?

Candida albicans

6

What organism causes anogenital warts?

Human papilloma virus strains 6 and 11.

7

Of the herpes viruses, which causes genital herpes and which causes oral herpes?

HSV-1 -> oral and genital herpes
HSV-2 -> genital herpes

8

Treatment for herpes?

Acyclovir

9

What bacteria causes trichomonias?

Trichomonas vaginalis.

10

Name some symptoms of chlamydia?

-mild urethritis
-dysuria
-epididymitis/prostatitis
-mostly asymptomatic in females, but can have vaginal discharge, dyspareunia or post-coital bleeding

11

Is chlamydia gram positive or gram negative?

Gram negative - but is difficult to stain.

12

Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium, what does this mean?

It can only replicate inside other cells.

13

Which genital tract infection can be spread to a newborn when giving birth and cause conjunctivitis?

Chlamydia trachomatis.

14

What is the treatment for chlamydia?

Doxycycline

15

Name some symptoms of gonorrhoea?

-discharge
-dysuria
-more commonly asymptomatic in women

16

How is gonorrhoea treated?

Combined ceftriaxone and azithromycin

17

Which STI is commonly a co-infection with HIV?

Syphillis - treponema pallidum.

18

What is the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary syphillis?

Primary - painless ulcer on genitals, very infectious, ulcer usually disappears.
Secondary - an associated rash weeks later
Tertiary - infection remains latent and becomes reactivated later in life, if this occurs during pregnancy, can lead to congenital syphillis.

19

Which strains of HPV can cause cervical cancer and which can cause anogenital warts.

HPV 16+18 - cervical, vaginal + vulval cancer.
HPV 6 + 11 - anogenital warts.

20

Name some symptoms of herpes.

-painful ulcers
-dysuria
-discharge
-systemic: fever, myalgia

21

What is trichomonas vaginalis treated with?

Metronidazole

22

What type of organism is trichomonas vaginalis?

Protozoa

23

Name some symptoms of trichomonias.

-discharge
-dysuria

24

Name investigations used to test for STIs in males.

-urinalysis
-bloods
-for gay and bisexual men, also do rectal, pharyngeal and urethral sampling
-for herpes, swab base of ulcer

25

Name investigations used to test for STIs in women.

-vulvovaginal swab or endocervical swab - gonorrhoea and chlamydia
-high vaginal swab - trichomonias, bacterial vaginosis and candida

26

What causes bacterial vaginosis?

An imbalance of the pH of the vagina, allowing gardnerella vaginalis bacteria to grow. Often caused by excess douching.

27

Name some symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.

-fishy smelling discharge
-painless

28

Name some symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

-white discharge
-pain
-dyspareunia

29

What is pelvic inflammatory disease?

The result of ascending infection from the endocervix, leading to endometriosis, salpingitis, oophritis etc. It is often asymptomatic.

30

What is sexually acquired reactive arthritis?

Arthritis triggered by an STI.

31

What is Reiter's Syndrome?

Commonly triggered by an STI, most commonly chlamydia, it is a triad of conjunctivitis, reactive arthritis and urethritis.

32

Which organisms can cause PID?

Chlamydia, gonorrhoea or bacterial vaginosis.

33

Name some symptoms of PID.

-fever
-lower abdominal pain
-abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding
-can be asymptomatic

34

If left untreated, what can PID lead to?

-infertility
-fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
-reiter syndrome

35

What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome?

Caused by chlamydial PID - RUQ pain and peri-hepatitis (liver hepatitis caused by PID).

36

State some risk factors for PID.

-lack of condom use
-multiple sexual partners
-younger age at first intercourse
-IUD (acts as a place for infection)
-lower socio-economic class