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Flashcards in Genres Deck (36):
1

Gregorian chant (plainsong)

monophonic religious music setting Latin texts and intended for use in the Roman Catholic Church; the music sung daily at the eight canonical house of prayer and at Mass

2

trope

An addition of music or text (or both) to a pre-existing chant to more fully explain the theology inherent in the chants to which they are added.
Most tropes were added to chants in the Proper of the Mass, esp. the Introit.

3

sequence

An addition of music with text to a pre-existing chant. A sequence follows a chant, specifically the Alleluia of the Mass.

Features:
- syllabic chant
- double verse structure (exemplifies antiphonal singing)

4

liturgical drama

A religious play with music intended to be inserted into the liturgy, usually before Mass. The most famous is Hildegard's Ordo virtutum (Play of the Virtues).

5

cantiga

A medieval Spanish or Portuguese monophonic song.

Cantigas de Santa Maria - an anthology compiled about 1270 by Alfonso the Wise.

6

organum

(pl. organa) The term that came to be used generally to connote all early polyphony of the church.

7

parallel organum

Organum in which all voices move in lockstep, up or down, with the intervals between voices remaining the same.

8

sustained tone organum

Organum when the bottom voice holds a note while the faster-moving top voice embellishes it in a florid fashion.

9

Conductus

An extra-liturgical piece written for one, two, three, or occasionally four voices. Texts are metrical Latin poems arranged in successive stanzas. All voices were newly composed.

Conductus were often used to accompany the mof the clergy from one place to another in and around the church.

10

Motet

13th Century

Originally a discant clausula to which sacred words were added. Each upper voice uses its own text that comments on the significance of the single Latin word being sung by the tenor.

Intended for the "literati" and not necessarily for the church; certainly not for the masses.

Later connotated a sacred choral composition.

11

ballade

One of the French formes fixe.

Form: AAB for each stanza

1-3 stanzas (strophes) with a refrain.

12

rondeau

One of the lighter, less serious French formes fixe.

Form: ABaAabAB. Uses retrograde motion in the contratenor.

1 stanza.

13

virelai

The second less serious French formes fixe.

Form: AbbaA

May have more than one stanza.

14

Italian trecento madrigal

Secular music in trecento Italy.

Form: AAB

Music was added to a poem in Italian. Contained two or three 2-line stanzas followed by a two-line ritornello (refrain).

15

caccia

Secular music in trecento Italy.

A piece involving a musical canon in the upper two voices supported by a slower moving tenor.

caccia = hunt. Many pieces depicted and recreated hunting scenes.

16

ballata

Secular music in trecento Italy; a dance song with a choral refrain. Similar to the French virelai.

Replaced madrigal as the most popular Italian musicala genre in the second half of the trecento.

17

cyclic mass

A Mass where all movements are linked together by a common musical theme.

First example was Machaut's Mass of Our Lady.

18

rondellus

English musical practice of phrase exchange.

Example: Summer Canon (Sumer is i cumen in)

19

faburden

Strict style of English discant using parallel 6/3 chords.

One voice sang above plainsong chant at a 4th, the other below by a 3rd.

Chant is the middle voice.

20

fauxbourdon

Related style to the faburden found in the Continental countries. Music was improvised a fourth and a sixth below a given plainsong. Also produces parallel 6/3 chords.

Chant is the top voice.

21

motet-chanson

Hybrid genre. Vernacular text in an upper voice sung simultaneously with a Latin chant in the tenor.

22

cantus firmus Mass

A cyclic Mass in which the Ordinary movements are unified by a cantus firmus (well-established, previously existing melody).

First know - Dufay's Missa L'Homme arme; late 1450's.

23

mensuration canon

When two voices perform the same music at different rates of speed. Usually noted through different meter signatures.

24

frottola

Italian popular music that thrivevd from 1470-1530. A catch-all word used to describe a polyphonic setting of a wide variety of strophic Italian poetry.

25

sixteenth-century madrigal

Another catch-all term to describe settings of Italian verse.

16th century madrigal is through-composed (new music for every line of text) instead of strophic.

Uses a variety of textures and compositional techniques. for a wider range of expression than the strophic frottola.

26

pavane

A slow, gliding dance performed by couples in duple rather than triple. Replaced the earlier basse danse as the primary slow dance of the court.

Still used occasionally today as wedding music and processional music in churches.

27

galliard

A fast leaping dance in triple meter. Involves quick steps and leaps.

28

canzona

Late 16th century.

A freely composed instrumental piece, usually for organ or instrumental ensemble, which imitated the lively rhythms and lightly imitative style of the Parisian chanson.

29

chorale

A monophonic spiritual melody or religious folk song. Also known as a hymn today.

Started gaining popularity with Martin Luther to make music more accessible for all people in church.

30

points of imitation

When a motive is assigned to a phrase of text which appears, in turn, in each voice. Used by Palestrina in his Sanctus.

31

anthem

A sacred vocal composition similar to a motet, but sung in English. Honors the Lord or invokes the Lord to preserve and protect the English king or queen. Most were composed for Morning Prayer or Evensong.

32

Toccata

"Touched thing"

An instrumental showpiece that requires performers to use technical dexterity.

33

Recitative

Musically heightened speech. "recited style"

Simple recitative is accompanied only by basso continuo.

34

Aria

Aria = song. More florid and expansive and contain more melismas.

35

Arioso

A manner of singing halfway between a recitative and an aria. More rhythmically flexible by not has song-like as an aria.

36

Strophic variation aria

Uses same melodic and harmonic plan with slight variations in each verse.