Vocab - Antiquity through Renaissance Flashcards Preview

History Diagnostic Exam > Vocab - Antiquity through Renaissance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab - Antiquity through Renaissance Deck (42):
1

symposium

In ancient Greece, a tightly organized social gathering of adult male citizens for conversation and entertainment.

2

seven liberal arts

A framework of seven intellectual disciplines composed of the trivium and the quadrivium.

3

trivium

The three verbal disciplines of the seven liberal arts - grammar, logic, and rhetoric.

4

quadrivium

The four scientific disciplines - arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music - of the seven liberal arts that used number and quantitative reasoning to arrive at the truth.

5

Pythagorean tuning

Setting the pitches of a scale according to mathematically exact octaves, fifths, and fourth (not thirds and sixths)

6

proslambanomenos

The Greek name for the lowest sounding A on the bass clef staff.

7

tonos

Greek word for scale

8

De institutione musica

Fundamentals of Music written by Boethius. This became the required school text for music theory.

9

musica mundana

music of the spheres

10

musica humana

music of the human body

11

musica instrumentalis

earthly vocal and instrumental music

12

canonical hours

A set of eight periods of worship occurring throughout the day.

13

Vespers

Late afternoon service that was most important for music history. It involved singing psalms and hymn as well as the Magnificat (a text used by composers throughout history).

14

antiphonal singing

Music performance in which a divided choir alternately sings back and forth.

15

antiphon

A short chant, specific to the day, that came before the psalm and was repeated after it.

16

syllabic chant

one note for each syllable of text

17

neumatic chant

3-5 notes for each syllable of text

18

melismatic chant

many notes per syllable of text. (melisma = lenghty vocal phrase setting a single syllable)

19

De Musica

"On Music", written by John of St. Gall around 1100. The treatise set for eight church modes in a system with numbers to which were added Greek names. The eight modes were presented in four pairs:
Dorian
Phyrgian
Lydian
Mixolydian

20

authentic mode vs. plagal mode

Plagal modes are all a fourth below their authentic counterpart.

21

nota

A symbol on a line or space representing a single, precise pitch.

22

Guidonian hand

A system that used the joints of each finger to designate the notes of a scale. Most church music was taught by hand in the Middle Ages.

23

diabolus in musica

"Devil in music", refers to a tritone.

24

troubadour and trobairitz

Poet-musicians from Southern France (men and women respectively)

25

trouvere

Poet-musicians from Northern France.

26

Minnesinger

German poet-musicians. They wrote Minnesang (song of love).

27

vox principalis & vox organalis

The principal voice (pre-existing chant) and original voice (a newly created line to be added to the chant).

28

oblique motion

Organum with one voice repeating or sustaining a pitch while another moves away or toward it.

29

Musica enchiriadis (Music Handbook)

A music theory treatise written by Abbot Hoger that was the first documented appearance of polyphonic music.

30

Liber usualis

A modern edition of plainchant that uses chant neumes.

31

Strophic form

A song form in which the music composed for the initial stanza of text is repeated for each additional stanza.

32

solmization

A system of associating each note of a scale with a particular syllable (solfege).

33

organum purum

A style of older sustained-tone organum that Leonius wrote in.

Florid two-voice organum.

34

mensural notation

Symbol-specific notation.

Created by Franco in the late 13th century.

35

isorhythm

Same rhythm. A rhythmic pattern repeated again and again in a line, usually in the tenor.

36

formes fixes

"fixed forms" - secular art songs with prescribed form. All voices are newly composed.

37

musica ficta

13th-early 14th century

Any accidentals not originally including in the Guidonian system, which originally included only Bb as a chromatic pitch.

38

Trecento

The century of the 1300's, when arts flourished in France.

Squarcialupi Codex contained over 350 compositions from this era.

39

chanson

French word for song. A single volume with copies of chansons is called a chansonnier.

40

Burgundian cadence

"Octave leap cadence"

When three voices are present and the contratenor jumps an octave to fill in the texture of the final chord.

41

cantus firmus

Latin adjective meaning "firm" or "well-established".

42

text painting

Also called word painting.

Using chord shifts, musical repetition, controlled dissonance, and abrupt textural changes to highlight the meaning of the text.

Popular in madrigals.