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Lucianna's Program > Geology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Geology Deck (145):
1

gaucho

national symbol of Argentina -- (like the cowboy to the American west) -- usually depicted in a colorful poncho and on horseback -- signifying manly independence and self-reliance

2

Caracas

Venezuela's capital city

3

Bogota (accented "a")

Columbia's capital city

4

selva

rain forest -- In Brazil, this term refers to the Amazon rain forest, although there are many places that can be called la selva

5

favela

term for slums of Brazil -- a slum is a term for a poor and overcrowded neighborhood

6

uranium

a mineral used to make fuel rods for nuclear energy

7

escarpment

steep, rough and jagged cliff

8

Lake Chad

A shallow fresh water body bordering Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. It's size varies greatly during periods of high and low rainfall.

9

Kilimanjaro

The highest mountain in Africa, its name translates to "shining mountain" in Swahili, stands in Tanzania.

10

plateaus

raised, fairly flat areas of land. In Africa, the lands south of the Sahara Desert are full of plateaus which give the land it's 1000+ meter elevation.

11

canopy

a term for the leaf cover of trees within a rainforest. It's like an umbrella that protects animals and plants from the hot sun

12

ocean breezes

The Namib desert lies close to the Atlantic Ocean and is cooled by the airflow over the waters.

13

ecotourism

The allowing of visitors to experience natural places like rainforests, which can bring economic opportunity and an incentive to protect these places from destructive development.

14

national parks

Lands where development is forbidden by government authority in order to protect wildlife that are endangered. On the African savanna, the Tembe National Elephant Park protects elephant population from the threats of the ivory trade.

15

higher altitude

Brings cooler temperatures. Mountain air is cooler. In the countries of East Africa, the average temperatures are cooler because of their land elevation.

16

apartheid

a law which separated people by race in South Africa. It limited the rights of non-white members of South African society.

17

nationalism

the desire to form an independent country by a particular people

18

King Ezana

The Axumite ruler (now modern Sudan) who embraced Christianity and increased the power of his kingdom

19

Mansa Musa

ruler of the Mali empire. Made Timbuktu the center of trade, education and Islamic culture. The richest man in the history of the world.

20

discrimination

unequal treatment of a group by a more powerful group

21

extended families

household made up of several generations

22

clan

large group of people united by a common ancestor in the far past

23

lineage

large family group with close blood ties

24

urbanization

the movement of people from rural areas to cities

25

malnutrition

poor health from not eating the right foods or not eating enough food

26

Arabic

language spoken by most people of the Sahel countries

27

English

language spoken when people do business in Nigeria

28

Lagos

largest city in Nigeria

29

Abuja

capital of Nigeria

30

Abidjan

where people of Cote d'Ivoire go to find work

31

Afrikaners

descendants of Dutch, German, and French settlers in South Africa

32

black South Africans

set up the African National Congress in hopes of gaining power

33

people of Zimbabwe

have protested against the strong-handed rule of President Robert Mugabe

34

people of Botswana

enjoy one of the strongest democracies in South Africa

35

people of Angola and Namibia

live in poverty despite the mineral wealth of their country

36

Plateau of Tibet

called the Roof of the World because of its high elevation

37

Strait of Malacca

important trade route in China

38

Chang Jiang

northern China's main river system

39

Ring of Fire

plate movements cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions here

40

Huang He

makes Singapore one of the busiest shipping ports in the world

41

dzud

Mongolian word for a dry summer followed by a harsh winter

42

highland

climate zone of southwestern China and the Plateau of Tibet

43

humid continental

climate zone of northeastern China, the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, and northern Japan

44

typhoons

hurricane-like storms that form in the Pacific and blow across coastal East Asia

45

Gobi

Mongolian word meaning "place without water"

46

human rights

basic freedoms such as freedom of speech and religion

47

Tiananmen Square

site of student and worker protest for democratic reform

48

Macao

territory once controlled by Portugal

49

Dalai Lama

Buddhist leader of Tibet

50

exile

forced to live somewhere other than your own country

51

kimono

long, silken robe with an open neck and large sleeves

52

trade deficit

occurs when one country buys more goods from another country than it sells to that country

53

intensive agriculture

growing crops on every available piece of land

54

anime

Japanese style of animation

55

tatami

straw mats that cover the wooden floors of traditional Japanese homes

56

tae kwon do

martial art emphasizing mental discipline as well as self-defense

57

celadon

type of Chinese pottery modified by Koreans

58

Kim Jong Un

dictator of North Korea since 2011

59

Ban Ki-moon

became Secretary General of the United Nations in 2006

60

hangul

Korean writing system that uses only 28 symbols

61

Persian Gulf

contains largest reserves of petroleum

62

Suez Canal

used to pass from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea

63

Strait of Hormuz

used by oil tankers to enter and leave the Persian Gulf

64

Strait of Gibraltar

used to pass from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean

65

Aral Sea

body of water that borders both Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

66

desalinization

creates drinkable water from seawater

67

ergs

large sand dunes

68

Empty Quarter

desert on the Arabian Peninsula

69

Sahara

world's largest desert

70

dry farming

stores moisture in unplanted land

71

Abraham

Jews believe they are descended from this Mesopotamian herder

72

Sumerians

the first people known to use the wheel and plow

73

Muhammad

prophet of Islam

74

pharaohs

viewed as gods and rulers

75

Jesus

a Jew who taught that God loved all people

76

Yom Kippur

holiest day for Jewish people

77

dietary laws

state that Jews and Muslims cannot eat pork

78

Makkah

holy city of Islam

79

what Muslims must do during Ramadan

fast (not eat)

80

Beirut

capital and major port of Lebanon

81

trade embargo

placed on Iraq after the Persian Gulf War

82

Istanbul

major economic and cultural center at the entrance of the Black Sea

83

Law of Return

allows Jews anywhere in the world to become Israeli citizens

84

Aden

major port for ships traveling between the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea

85

ethnic group

people who share the same language, history, religion, and physical traits

86

globalization

the development of a worldwide culture with an interdependent economy

87

cultural diffusion

spreading ideas, customs, and language from one culture to another

88

civilizations

highly developed cultures

89

dialect

a local variation of a language

90

prevailing winds

major patterns of movements of air

91

weather

changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, and air moisture over a short period of time

92

biome

area with certain types of plants and animals

93

climate

predictable patterns of weather

94

currents

streams of warm and cold water in the ocean

95

trench

a deep cut in the ocean floor

96

precipitation

water that falls to the ground from the sky

97

continental shelf

an underwater plateau off the coast of a continent

98

evaporation

when water changes from liquid to gas

99

condensation

when water changes from gas to liquid

100

erosion

movement of rock by water, wind, and ice

101

crust

part of the Earth that includes the continents

102

mantle

layer of hot, dense rock surrounding the Earth's core

103

magma

melted rock that is called lava when it comes from a volcano

104

plate tectonics

explains how the continents move

105

summer solstice

day with the most hours of sunlight in the Northern Hemisphere

106

revolution

Earth's complete circuit around the sun

107

equinoxes

two days when day and night are of equal length in both hemispheres

108

axis

imaginary line passing through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole

109

orbit

path of each planet around the sun

110

Global Positioning System

system that uses radio signals to record the exact location of every place on Earth

111

environment

natural surroundings

112

Geographic Information Systems

system of computer hardware and software that gathers, stores, and analyzes geographic information

113

geography

study of Earth and its people

114

absolute location

exact spot on Earth where a geographic feature is found

115

renewable

resources like wind, water, and forests

116

economic system

determines what goods and services to produce, how to produce them, and who will receive them

117

newly industrialized

moving toward developed economies

118

nonrenewable

resources like iron ore and coal that are limited in supply

119

quota

limit on how much of a particular product can be imported from a certain nation

120

Andes

ends in a series of steep cliffs

121

Orinoco

carries fertile soil into the Llanos of western Venezuela

122

Greater Natilles

Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica

123

Central America

isthmus that links North America and South America

124

Brazilian Highlands

cordillera along the Pacific coast of South America

125

desert

climate of northern Mexico

126

Amazon Basin

holds the world's largest rain forest

127

Caribbean islands

developed a tourism industry despite hurricans

128

humid subtropical climate

the short winters and long, humid summers of Argentina's Pampas

129

Mediterranean climate

enables central Chile to grow large amounts of fruit

130

Aztec

built a huge empire in central Mexico

131

Toltec

held a monopoly on the obsidian trade

132

Olmec

Latin America's first civilization in southern Mexico

133

Inca

empire that stretched more than 2,500 miles along the
Andes

134

caudillos

ruled as dictators and did little to help the poor

135

Maya

first civilization of the pre-Columbian Amercias to fully develop a written language and calendar; also known for its mathematical and astronomical systems, and its art and architecture

136

Quechua

ancient and current language of Peru and Bolivia

137

Sao Paulo

has a large Japanese community

138

Central America

region of high birth rates in Latin America

139

Cuba

country whose music shaped American jazz

140

Rio de Janeiro

this city's Carnival is famous for its color and excitement

141

vaqueros

Mexican cowhands

142

mestizos

people with a Spanish and Native American heritage

143

subsistence farms

small plots where farmers grow enough food to feed their families

144

plantations

large farms that raise a single crop for sale

145

maquiladoras

factories in which workers assemble parts made in other countries