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Flashcards in Geology Deck (38):
1

Igneous

Rocks that come from lava or magma

2

Magma

Substance that is liquid rock that does no make it to the surface

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Lava

Magma that has made it to the surface of the lithosphere

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extrusive

the lava that comes out of a volcano

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intrusive

the lava that is still in the volcano/ cannals

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sedimentary

rocks that are stacked on eachother

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metamorphic

rocks that are changed by heat or pressure

8

mantle

a layer of the earth under the athenoshere

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athenoshere

a layer of the earth that is under the lithoshere

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outer core

a layer of the earth under the mantle

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core

a layer of the earth that is pure metal

12

crystal

a type of rock formed inside a volcano after it has cooled

13

erosion

erosion: the wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity

14

floodplains

floodplains: flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

15

glaciers

glaciers: large bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them

16

moraines

moraines: deposit left by movement of a glacier

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sandstone

sandstone: a sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.

18

mudstone

mudstone: a fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

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siltstone

siltstone: a sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

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conglomerate

conglomerate: sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

21

limestone

limestone: a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

22

coal

coal: a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

23

rocksalt

rock salt: a sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride.

24

mineral ores

mineral ores: rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

25

mining

mining: extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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environmental impact statement

environmental impact statement (EIS): study of the possible effects of a planned project on the environment

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rehabilitated

rehabilitated: restored to its previous condition

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overburden

overburden: waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.

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open cut mining

open-cut mining: mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

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underground mining

underground mining: mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

31

fossil

fossil: any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

32

folding rock

folding: the buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

33

paleontologists

palaeontologists: a scientist who studies fossils

34

relative age

relative age: the age of a rock compared with the age of another rock

35

carnivores

carnivores: animal that eats other animals

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scavengeres

scavengers: animals that eat dead plant and animal material

37

trace fossils

trace fossils: fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed

38

extinct

extinct: describes volcanoes that are no longer active. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted for thousands of years and show no sign of future eruption.