Flashcards in Geology Deck (38):
Rocks that come from lava or magma
Substance that is liquid rock that does no make it to the surface
Magma that has made it to the surface of the lithosphere
the lava that comes out of a volcano
the lava that is still in the volcano/ cannals
rocks that are stacked on eachother
rocks that are changed by heat or pressure
a layer of the earth under the athenoshere
a layer of the earth that is under the lithoshere
a layer of the earth under the mantle
a layer of the earth that is pure metal
a type of rock formed inside a volcano after it has cooled
erosion: the wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity
floodplains: flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods
glaciers: large bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them
moraines: deposit left by movement of a glacier
sandstone: a sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains. The sand grains are cemented together by silica, lime or other salts.
mudstone: a fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering
siltstone: a sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone
conglomerate: sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together
limestone: a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.
coal: a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely
rock salt: a sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up. Its main chemical is sodium chloride.
mineral ores: rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them
mining: extraction of natural resources from the Earth
environmental impact statement
environmental impact statement (EIS): study of the possible effects of a planned project on the environment
rehabilitated: restored to its previous condition
overburden: waste rock removed from below the topsoil. This rock is replaced when the area is restored.
open cut mining
open-cut mining: mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land
underground mining: mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface
fossil: any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past
folding: the buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.
palaeontologists: a scientist who studies fossils
relative age: the age of a rock compared with the age of another rock
carnivores: animal that eats other animals
scavengers: animals that eat dead plant and animal material
trace fossils: fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed