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Flashcards in Geology Deck (42):
1

Igneous

Rocks that came from a volcano

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Magma

A substance that never reaches the surface

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Lava

Magma that reaches the surface

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Intrusive

A rock that forms within the earths surface

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Extrusive

A rock that forms outside the earths surface

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Mineral

A solid naturally occurring rock

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Lithosphere (Crust)

The uppermost and thinnest layer of the earth

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Asthenosphere

Is the layer between the Lithosphere and Mantle

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Crystal

A solid with symmetrically arranged plane faces

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Sedimentary

Rocks formed from sediments deposited by water

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Erosion

The wearing away and removal of soil

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Floodplains

Flat or open land beside a river were sediments are deposited

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Glacier

Large bodies that move down slopes and push boulders rocks and stone in front of them

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Moraines

Deposit left by movement of glacier

15

Sandstone

A sedimentary rock with medium sized sand grains

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Mudstone

A fine grain sedimentary rock without layers

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Shale

A fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

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Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

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Conglomerate

Sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

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Limestone

A sedimentary rock formed from remnants of dead sea organisms

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Coal

A sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried for millions of years

22

Rock Salt

A sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up.

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Metamorphic rocks

Rocks that were once sedimentary or igneous but were changed because of intense heat and pressure.

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Metamorphism

The process in which a Sedimentary or Igneous rock is changed to metamorphic rock.

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Mineral ores

Rocks that have other substances or chemicals within them.

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Mining

Extraction of natural resources from the earth.

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Environmental impact statement

Study of possible effects of planned project.

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Rehabilitated

restored to its previous condition

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Overburden

Waste rock removed from top of soil replaced when work in area ceases.

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Open cut-mining

Mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

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Underground Mining

Mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface.

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Stone age

The first period of human history.

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Alloy

A mixture of metals.

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Flint

A hard sedimentary rock formed from mineral quartz.

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Percussion flaking

The method of forming a flint tool

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Fossil

Any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

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Folding

The buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

38

Paleontologists

Scientists that uncover and study fossils

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Relative age

The age of one rock compared to the other rock

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Carnivores

Animals that eat other animals

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Scavengers

Animals that eat dead plant and animal material

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Trace fossils

Fossils of an animals footprints.