German Foreign Policy Under Hitler - Historical Influence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in German Foreign Policy Under Hitler - Historical Influence Deck (22)
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1

What were the three factors which influenced Nazi Foreign Policy?

1) Largely fictional "racial history" - drove Hitler's firm views on race
2) Longing for earlier empires - sense that Power and Land were Germany's right.
3) WW1 and effects of Treaty of Versailles

2

What else did the three factors influence?

Influence propaganda to unite German people behind Nazi policies.

Accuracy was less important, more focus on the propaganda impact.

3

What was the Aryan Racial Theory?

Hitler believed true Germans were Aryans.
He saw Aryans as the superior race to all other races and ethnic groups.
He wanted a Great Aryan Empire.
He captured other countries and cleared them of "inferior" people to give "PURE GERMANS" enough land to live on - used the idea of Pan-Germanism to executive it.

4

Define Pan-Germanism

The idea that all German-speaking people should be united and live under one country.

5

How did the Aryan Racial Theory affect the Nazi Foreign Policy?

1) Led Nazis to favour alliances with radically acceptable countries - e.g. BRITAIN
2) Led Nazis to favour German expansion eastwards - taking land from those who were "racially inferior"

6

What did the Racial Theory not stop Germany from doing?

It didn't stop them from making alliances with "inferior" countries to gain temporary advantage.
These alliances were seen as a NECESSARY EVIL.

7

What were the two earlier empires the Nazis focused on?

1) Holy Roman Empire of Charlemagne - 800 - 1806 (the First Reich)
2) German Empire founded in 1871 by Otto von Bismark after Prussia defeated France (Second Reich)

.

8

Features of the Two Empires

Both empires had gained land and kept it - by using military strength and war.

Both had worked hard to be accepted by other nations

The Second Reich had created a series of alliances with other countries.

9

What was the influence of these empires on Hitler?

This strategy may have influenced Hitler, during the early years when he was in power because he stressed the desire for peace.

10

How did the Germans feel about WW1?

Many German people were misinformed about how the war was going.
They believed Germany could have won the war if:
1) the Kaiser had stayed
2) the army kept on fighting
They felt they had been "stabbed in the back" by the "November Criminals"

11

Who were the so-called "November Criminals?"

These were politicians in the new government who had negotiated the armistice and signed the Treaty of Versailles.

12

How did the Germans feel about the new Government after 1918?

They were unpopular and resented for signing the Treaty of Versailles.

13

Who were the "Big Three"?

Britain, France and the USA.

14

How harshly France feel Germany should be punished and why?

France - had suffered the most, had the most to fear from the outbreak of another war and so pushed for the severest measures.

USA - had entered the

15

How harshly did Britain feel Germany should be punished and why?

Britain - did not want to force a treaty that would cause resentment, however the government had promised the British people to press for the harshest punishment.

16

How harshly did the USA feel Germany should be punished and why?

They had entered the war late and had lost the least through it. Woodrow Wilson pressed for a reasonable treaty and the setting up of a system of international negotiation to prevent future wars.

17

What did Woodrow Wilson insist upon?

He insisted those who signed the treaties that ended the war should join the League of Nations.

18

What was the League of Nations?

This was an organisation set up to promote harmony between nations.

19

How much land did Germany lose after the Treaty of Versailles was signed?

-Germany lost land in Europe and all its colonies. This was all land:
-Gained by the Brest-Litovsk Treaty
- in Upper Silesia
- in Alasce and Lorraine
-in Eupen and Malmedy

20

What were the military consequences of the Treaty of Versailles (ToV) on Germany?

The Rhinelands became demilitarised "buffer zone" for France - German troops could not enter it
The German army were limited to 100,000 troops that could not leave Germany
Germany was not allowed tanks or heavy artillery
The German fleet was not allowed to have any warships over 10,000 tonnes.
Germany were not allowed to have submarines
Germany was not allowed an air force.

21

What other consequences were there for Germany?

They had to pay heavy reparations of 132 million gold marks in 1921
Germany had NO SAY in the terms of the Treaty.
They had to sign the War Guilt Clause.

22

What was the War Guilt Clause?

It was a clause which Germany signed holding them responsible for starting the First World War.