Can German Qualitätswein be chaptalized?
yes. Must be produced from approved varieties sourced from a single anbaugebiet.
Can German Prädikatswein be chaptalized?
What are the requirements to produce German Eiswein Prädikatswein?
Grapes must be harvested when temperatures are no higher than -7° C, minimum 5.5% abv, and No chaptalization.
What is the German word for a vineyard owned by a single owner (i.e. monopole)?
What does the term “Alte Reben” mean on a German or Austrian wine label? What is the Spanish and French equivalent?
old vines. French = vieilles vignes, Spanish = viñas viejas
What does the term “Edelfäule” mean in Germany and Austria?
noble rot / botrytis
What is the German word for noble rot?
What is a Stück in Germany?
traditional 1200-liter cask commonly used in the Rheingau.
What is the name for the traditional 1,200-liter cask commonly used in the Rheingau?
What is a Sonnenuhr? Name two vineyards with a Sonnenuhr.
A sundial (to show the progression of the day to workers in vineyards), often very large and on steep vineyard sites. Wehlener Sonnenuhr, and Zeltinger Sonnenuhr.
What is the difference between the German term “Grosslage” and “Grosse Lage”?
Grosselage or Grosselagen is a collective vineyard, under which all the single vineyards of a village are subsumed, while a Grosse Lage (two words) is a top single vineyard in the VDP framework.
What is the name of a local village in Germany?
Why are the í_schle ranges for prí_dikat levels expressed as a range?
because they vary: each anbaugiete has its own requirements for each authorized grape. also there is no maximumäóîgrapes harvested at higher must weights can be declassified to a lower prí_dikat
What is Scharzhofberger?
one of the Mosel’s finest vineyards, exemplified by Egon Muller
What is considered the finest vineyard site in the Nahe?
Hermannshöhle (in Niederhausen)
Where is Oberhauser Brücke?
In the Middle Nahe, a monopole of Dönnhoff
What is the sole bereich of the Nahe?
NahetalBUTthe region consists of 3 main, classic subregions along the Nahe River: Upper, Middle, and Lower Nahe
What is the German name for Pinot Meunier?
What is the Roter Hang?
prestigious region of red clay and slate spanning ~180 ha in the Rheinhessen (between Nierstein and Nackenheim villages)
What are the membership requirements for the VDP?
- commitment to the VDPäó»s classification system - higher minimum must weights and lower maximum yields - all estate grown- Hand-harvesting required for single vineyard wines and for Auslese or above- members must have minimum 80% of traditional grape varieties in their vineyards
What does VDP stand for?
Verband Deutscher Pradikatsweinguter
Where is Grafenberg?
Rheingau village Kiedrichfamous for Robert Weil’s sweet wines (particularly Auslese and above)
What two anbaugebiet are most known for Silvaner?
Franken and Rheinhessen (Rheinhessen has more planted than anywhere in the world)
Name three Rheinhessen producers.
Keller, Wittman, Wagner-Stempel
Where is Kirchenstuck?
Trick question! There is a Kirchenstuck in Rheingau’s Hockheim, and Pfalz’s Forst. Hockheim Kirchenstuck: area is notably characteristically warm-Forst Kirchenstí_ck: exception to 1971 law (vineyard is not 5 ha) and Pfalz’s warmest and “most exceptional” vineyard site
Minimum oechsle Range for Eiswein
Which Mosel beirech is referred to as Terrassenmosel?
Burg Cochem (the narrowing river and intensely steep slopes make terraced vineyards necessary (has some of Europe’s steepest slopes here at 65%!)
What producers make up the “3 B’s” of the Pfalz, and what part are they located?
Bassermann-Jordan, von Buhl, Burklin-Wolf (and Muller-Catoir) = most recognizable estates, located in the Mittelhaardt
Robert Weil is famous for making top wines from what site?
Kiedricher Grafenberg in the Rheingau
What estate is credited with “discovering” Spatlese harvesting and making wine from grapes with edelfí_ule?
Schloss Johannisberg - 1775The estate followed with the introduction of the Auslese category in 1787 and the first Eiswein in 1858.
What is the German synonym for Blaufrankish?
Similar to Alsace, the best German vineyards face what direction?
South, for more sun
What is the minimum oechsle Range for Auslese?
Where is Niederhauser Hermannshohle?
Middle Nahe, considered the Nahe’s finest vineyard site.
Where is Schloss Johannisberg?
Geisenheim in the Rheingau
Where might you find Chasselas growing in Germany?
in Baden’s Markgräflerland Bereiche (Baden’s southernmost point, almost exclusively cultivated here)
What are the four current tiers of the VDP classification?
Gutswein = regional
Orstwein = village
Erste Lage = Premier Cru
Grosse Lage = grand cru
What is the early ripening mutation of Spatburgunder called?
What is Scheurebe a crossing of?
Riesling x Bukettrebe
What is Rulander?
Rulander is asynonym for Grauburgunder in the Baden region. Dry styles are usually bottled varietally as Grauburgunder while sweet styles are usually labeled as Rulander.
What river does the Franken region surround?
What is the minimum alcohol for Pradikatswein? Can producers chaptalize?
minimum alcohol 7% (5.5% for Beerenauslese, TBA, and Eiswein wines). NO, Praditkatswein cannot be chaptalized.
What is the VDP logo? What is it called?
an eagle clutching a cluster of grapes, called the Traubenadler
What are the 2 beireich of the Pfalz?
- Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse
- Sudliche Weinstrasse
What are the 3 Bereichs of the Rheinhessen?
- Nierstein (important area, keep in mind the Roter Hang is in between Nierstein and Nackenheim villages)- Wonnegau (southern Bereich, where Wittman and Keller are, G-Max comes from an undisclosed parcel in the region, lots of star power from excellent dry Riesling coming from the limestone and loess soils of Wonnegau)- Bingen (covers much of the western reaches of the Anbaugebiet, not as much star power as the others but Wagner-Stempel is here)
How are there some ungrafted/centurion vineyards in the Mosel? Where else in Germany might you find ungrafted vines that phylloxera hasn’t hit?
Mosel’s slate soils limited the incursion of phylloxera: it is present but it cannot thrive, leaving a few pockets of centurion vinesAlso in the pure slate soils of the Upper Ahr Valley: phylloxera is nonexistent and there are a few century-old vineyards, still trained in the single-post system.
What area of the Mosel notably does not have slate soils?
Obermosel and Moseltor, they sit on top of the Paris Basin and have calcareous marl/limestone soils instead
What Rheingau village and vineyard has the steepest slopes of the Rheingau?
Rüdesheim, Berg Schlossberg (70% grade in this Grosse Lage!)
How would you describe the difference between Sudliche Weinstrasse and Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse?
Historically the most important vineyards of the region are on eastern slopes of the Haardt Hills in the north.
What is noticeably absent from Grosse Gewächs labels?
the village name! instead the labels only list the Grosse Lage vineyard site
What was the biggest impact of the 1971 German Wine Law in regards to the vineyards?
30,000 individual vineyards condensed to about 2,600 individual sites
What are the 6 bereiche of the Mosel north to south?
- Burg Cochem (super steep, “lower Mosel” or Terrassenmosel)
- ***Bernkastel (largest, Mittelmosel, holds 2/3 of Mosel’s vineyard area)
- Ruwertal (north of Saar on Ruwar tributary) 4. Saar (south, but high elevation, cooler, on Saar tributary)
- Obermosel (“Upper Mosel,” which is actually south like in Alsace)
- Moseltor (known for Elbling, closest to French border) Bernkastel is between Ruwertal and Burg Cochem making up the Middle Mosel/Mittelmosel
What are the 3 Bereich of Franken?
- Mainviereck (vier = 4) rectangular part of the Main where Spatburgunder does best
- Maindreieck (drei = 3) triangle part of the Main, where three quarters of Franken’s wine comes from
- Steigerwald = eastern, highest, coolest, Castell + Iphofen villages important
What region is considered Baden’s most celebrated zone for Spatburgunder?
Kaiserstuhl is Baden’s best site for Pinot Nor. It experiences Germany’s warmest and sunniest winegrowing climate.
“If anything, Kaiserstuhl’s greatest viticultural liability is one sommeliers don’t usually associate with Germany: too much sun, too much heat, too much potential alcohol.” - GuildSomm
What were the major changes to the VDP’s classification system in 2012? Is it the same in all regions?
In the 2012 the Grosse Lage tier was created to emulate Grand Cru in Burgundy. Former Erste Lage sites became Grosse Lage sites, and Erste Lage became Premier Cru. Now Grosse Lage wines carry Grosse Lage logo (a number 1 with a cluster of grapes). Notably, not all anbaugebiete have to adopt the Erste Lage category (for example, the Rheinhessen has not). Producers of sweet wines may make a range of prädikat levels from a Grosse Lage site, but only ONE dry wine may be produced in each of the top vineyards.
What part of Germany would you most likely find Blaufränkisch, and what is it called in Germany?
Found mostly in Wí_rttemberg, called Lemberger
What is the famous Spatburgunder site of Assmannshausen?
Hüllenberg, August Kesseler is the top producer
What is a Rheingauer Flüte?
the traditional brown glass bottle most Rheingau Riesling is bottled
What is Frühburgunder and where is it found?
early-ripening strain of Pinot Noir, found in Franken and Ahr
Grosses Gewächs translates to:
What are the most prominent crossings developed at Geisenheim?
- Müller-Thurgau (Riesling x Madeline Royale)
- Kerner, Bacchus, and Faber (notable for being able to ripen where Riesling cannot)
- Dornfelder (Helfensteiner x Heroldrebe) = most prominent German red crossing and is currently the country’s 2nd most planted red grape
When the 1971 German Wine Law was enacted, what was the prime determinant of quality?
ripeness level at harvest (read: site, yields, etc were of lesser importance)
What is the minimum Oechsle Range for Spätlese?
Did Silvaner originate in Germany?
No, Silver is actually an Austrian grape. Made its way to Franken in the 17th Century after its vineyards were heavily devastated in the Thirty Years War. To revive winegrowing Austrian cuttings were brought and planted in the area.
Is chaptalization legal for VDP wines?
Technically yes, because in the eyes of the law VDP wines are just qualidatswein. That said, it is discouraged except for when routinely practiced with Spätburgunder.
What is Liebfraumilch and its history?
Liebfraumilch was the face of German wine in 1980s (more than 60% of German exports had Liebfraumilch printed on the label). It was sweet and cheap, usually produced from Muller-Thurgau. Liebfraumilch cannot be labeled by varietal, can be blended from vineyards throughout Rheinhessen, Nahe, Rheingau, and Pfalz
Why is the Saar Beirech cooler than the Mittelmosel, and more of a marginal climate?
- higher elevation (despite that it is more southerly)
- Saar River is smaller and doesn’t provide as much of a moderating effect
- soils are less uniformly slate, so less of a warming effect SO the wines are higher in acidity but can be fantastic in warmer years
How would you describe what the VDP did, and their goals?
VDP growers formed a classification movement as a reaction against the 1971 Wine Law. The purpose of the classification was to nails down the priority of the best vineyard sites in Germany. They also aim to bring back the significance of high-class dry wines and to enforce the importance of traditional sweet wines with Pradikat.
What is Schwarzriesling?
German synonym for Pinot Meunier
Where is Würzburger Stein, and what is special about it?
Würzburger Stein is in the Maindreieck bereich of the Franken region. It is a warm, south-facing limestone and loess slope planted primarily to Riesling and Silvaner; it produces some of Franken’s top examples of both
Which anbaugebiet has the most land under vine?
Outside of VDP and Charta, what is the third organization that has attempted to introduce a simplified labeling system for German wines?
state-affiliated German Wine Institute at Mainz created its own hierarchy Classic and Selection (2000) intended to replace the halbtrocken and trocken (legally recognized terms)
What is Donhoff’s monopole vineyard?
How are single vineyard wines denoted on a German wine label?
Village name (with the suffix -er) followed by Vineyard nameIn Erste Lage and Grosse Lage sites the village name is dropped, similar to Burgundy Grand Cru
Where is the Würzburger Stein vineyard?
Franken Würzburg is Franken’s wine center.
What are the requirements for Sekt to be labeled QbA in quality?
has to be produced from traditional grapes grown in one of the 13 anbaugebiete
Where would you find Schiava in Germany? What is the German synonym?
Where does the Rhine River begin and end?
flows northward from its headwaters in Switzerland to the North Sea
What is the Rheingau’s sole beirech?
Johannisberg, a famous wine village (hence Johannisberg Riesling)
What part of the Mosel is Elbling most likely to be found?
Obermosel and Moseltor bereiche
What region is generally warmer, the Rheingau or Rheinhessen?
Rheingau, because of the moderating effect of the Rhine River
What is the famous area of the Rheinhessen that has always been associated with high quality?
The Roter Hang, a slim slope (70-80% grade) that is protected from the frost and winds that sweep through the rest of the Rheinhessen- home to famed vineyards Pettenthal and Rothenberg
What does a goldkapsel indicate? What region do you find this?
generally to indicate additional sweetness due to a higher must weight, most commonly encountered on Auslese bottlings and used almost exclusively by MOSEL producers but can be used in Rheingau too
What is Germany’s northernmost winegrowing region?
What is a “alleinbesitz”?
What is the minimum oechsle Range for TBA?
Rheingau producers typically use what term instead of GG?
Erstes Gewächs (the legal term trademarked by Charta, and therefore can be spelled out while GG is initials since grosses gewächs is barred on wine labels)
What mountain range in the Ahr protects vineyards from cold wind, and allows it to be hospitable to red varieties despite the northern location?
What is a Amtliche Prüfungsnummer?
AP Number, required for all German Pradikatswein. It is comprised of 5 sets of numbers and indicates wine has been approved by a tasting panel.
- set 1 = region where the wine was tested
- set 2 = commune the wine was bottled
- set 3 = bottler’s code
- set 4 = unique code for the specific bottling
- set 5 = indicate year in the application was filed
Where are the village of Castell and Iphofen located?
What southern Pfalz producers are helping propel the area into the spotlight?
What is the minimum oechsle Range for Kabinett?
What are the main tributaries of the Mosel River?
Saar and Ruwer
What anbaugebiete were added after the country was reunified in 1990?
Sachsen and Saale-Unstrut
What is the famous soil type of the Mittelmosel, and what makes it special?
Devonian blue slate (also found in Polish Hill in Clare Valley) the blue slate absorbs and retains heat, while the river reflects warmth onto the vines, allowing them to ripen in a region that is so cold/cool.
What is “Message in a Bottle?” (Rheinhessen)
an organization of over two dozen young producers in the Rheinhessen committed to raising the region’s potential and image, internally and internationally.
What is Kloster Eberbach’s famous monopole?
What anbaugibiete has the most acreage planted? Which has the most Riesling planted?
Rheinhessen has most planted, but the Pfalz has the most Riesling acreage
Despite its northerly location, the Ahr is relatively warm and often warmer than the Mosel because:
winegrowing surrounds the Ahr River (a Rhine tributary) and vineyards are sheltered from cold winds by the Eifel Mountains, and the rocky, volcanic slate offer warmth.
What is Germany’s driest winegrowing region, and why?
Nahe, because it is protected from wind and weather on the north and west by wooded mountains.
What is the Rheingau’s sole Bereiche?
What is Schillerwein?
style of rosé produced by fermenting red and white grapes together, common in Württemberg, blending is mandatory.
(fun fact: one of the few European rosé wines other than Champagne that blending is allowed!)
Where are Berg Rottland, Berg Roseneck, and Berg Schlossberg located?
In Rüdesheim in the Rheingau, considered TOP Riesling sites.
Where are Rothenberg and Pettenthal vineyards located?
Within the Roter Hang in Rheinhessen
How would you describe the current state of Spatburgunder in Germany?
After France and US, Germany is the 3rd largest Pinot Noir producer! PN is 3rd most planted variety in the country. Today, Germany has better clonal selection, there eis better winemaking though chaptalization is still widespread and/or sometimes necessary. Lastly, red winemaking in Germany’s marginal climate is “a new ball game” with climate change, and encouraging new plantings. To sum it up: “advantageous climate change, improved winemaking, and fascinating terroir”
Where is the Höllenberg vineyard located?
Assmanshausen in the Rheingau, known for Pinot Noir (and where almost all of it is grown in the Rheingau). August Kesseler is one of the best growers.
What was Germany’s focus post-WWII?
quantity, mass production
When was Charta formed, and what does it promote?
Charta was formed in 1984, created to promote DRY Rheingau Riesling (only a handful of producers remain committed to the concept because the VDP is so prominent)
Where would you find Erstes Gewachs on a wine label, and what can it be used for?
ONLY in the Rheingau. Unlike GG or Charta it is legally sanctioned and therefore spelled out in full on Rheingau labels. Can be used for dry Riesling and Spatburgunder bottlings from selected vineyards only.
What is the minimum Oechsle Range for Beerenauslese?
Name three Franken Silvaner producers.
Wirsching, Sauer, Juliasspital
Franken: Important Gemeinden and Einzellagen
Würzburg: Stein, Leiste
Iphofen: Julius Echter Berg
Nahe: Important Gemeinden and Einzellagen
- Bad Kreuznach
- Bad Münster Norheim
- Niederhausen: Hermannshohle, Hermannsberg
- Oberhausen: Brücke
- Schlossbockelheim: Kupfergrube, Felsenberg
Pfalz: Important Gemeinden and Einzellagen in the Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse
Kallstadt: Saumagen UngsteinBad Du’šrkheimWachenheimForst: Kirchenstu’šck, Freundstu’šck, Pechstein, Ungeheuer, Jesuitengarten Deidesheim: Langenmorgen, Hohenmorgen, KieselbergRuppertsberg: Reiterpfad, Gaisbo’šhl (Bu’šrklin-Wolf monopole) Ko’šnigsbach: Idig
Rheinhessen: Important Gemeinden and Einzellage
- Nackenheim: Rothenberg
- Nierstein: Hipping, Pettenthal
- Oppenheim: Schu’štzenhu’štte, Sacktra’šger *Westhofen: Morstein, Kirchspiel
- Dalsheim: Hubacker
Rheingau: Important Gemeinden and Einzellagen
- Assmannshausen: Hollenberg
- Rudesheim: Berg Roseneck, Berg Rottland, Berg Schlossberg
- Geisenheim: Schloss Johannisberg
- Johannisberg: Hölle
- Winkel: Schloss Vollrads, Jesuitengarten, Hasensprung
- Hattenheim: Pfaffenberg (monopole of Schloss Schonborn), Mannberg, Steinberg Hallgarten: Scho’šnhell, Jungfer
- Erbach: MarcobrunnKiedrich: Grafenberg
- Eltville: Sonnenberg
- Hochheim am Main: Hölle, Kirchenstück
Minimum Oschle range for each of the pradikats:
- Kabinett 70-85°
- Spatlese 80-95°
- Auslese 88-10°
- Beerenauslese 110-128°
- Trockenbeerenauslese 150-154°
- Eiswein 110-128°
Why is Riesling not a major variety of the Franken region?
Franken is too cold: its inland location, without the moderating influence of a (major) river means it is bitterly cold. Riesling only survives in the warmest sites.
What grape varieties are allowed for Baden VDP Grosse Lage wines?
Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc