GHC Ch 1: Natural Disasters and Human Population Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GHC Ch 1: Natural Disasters and Human Population Deck (47):
1

What are the two deadliest events?

tropical storms (hurricanes) and earthquakes

2

Is a greater magnitude disaster more or less likely to happen than a lesser magnitude disaster?

Less likely

3

At what rate is the population increasing?

1.2% per year

4

carrying capacity

The maximum population size that can be supported under a given set of environmental conditions.

5

CE

Common era. Same as AD.

6

cyclone

A region of low atmospheric pressure and converging air that rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.

7

demographic transition

The change from a human population with high birth rates and high death rates to one with low birth rates and low death rates.

8

earthquake

The shaking of Earth by seismic waves radiating away from a disturbance, most commonly a fault movement.

9

energy

Capacity for performing work

10

epidemic

An outbreak of desease

11

exponential growth

Growth in a compound fashion that, given time, leads to incredible numbers.

12

fertility

The ability to produce offspring; the proportion of births to population.

13

frequency

Number of events in a given time interval. For earthquakes, it is the number of cycles of seismic waves that pass in a second; frequency=1/period

14

great natural disaster

A disaster so overwhelming that outside assistance is needed to handle the rescue and recovery for the region.

15

hurricane

A large, tropical cyclonic storm with wind speeds exceeding 119 and 19 km/h; called a typhoon in the Western Pacific Ocean and a cyclone in the Indian Ocean.

16

influenza

Highly contagious virus caused diseases. The word is commonly shortened to flu.

17

magnitude

An assessment of the size of an event. Magnitude scales exist for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and tornadoes. For earthquakes, different magnitudes are calculated for the same earthquake when different types of seismic waves are used.

18

mitigation

Actions taken by humans to minimize the possible effects of a natural hazard.

19

mortality

Death rate; the proportion of deaths to population

20

natural disaster

An event or process that destroys life and/or property.

21

natural hazard

A source of danger to life, property, and the environment. The probability that a dangerous event will occur.

22

pandemic

A disease occurring over a wide area and affecting many people.

23

return period

Amount of time between an event of a given size.

24

tornado

Spending funnels of wind whose rotating windspeeds can exceed 480 km/h.

25

tsunami

Giant, long period sea waves caused by oceanic disturbances, such as fault movements, volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts, and landslides.

26

typhoon

A large, tropical cyclonic storm with wind speeds exceeding 119 km/h; called a hurricane in the Western Hemisphere

27

virus

Submicroscopic agents of many infectious diseases. Viruses replicate inside living cells of organisms.

28

volcano

An opening of the Earth's surface where magma has poured or blown forth, typically creating hills or mountains.

29

Where in the world are deaths from natural disasters highest?

in a belt through Asia, along the Indian Ocean

30

Where in the world are insurance losses from natural disasters highest?

in U.S., Europe and Japan

31

Why has the population suddenly boomed?

Scientific medical revolution and public health care, better shelter, food, and water supplies

32

What is the current world population?

7 billion

33

What is the population doubling time?

58 years

34

How many people were killed by natural disasters in 2011?

Nearly 29,000

35

What is the number of fatalities proportional to?

population density

36

What are death totals are often related to?

economic, educational, and political factors

37

altruism

the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others.

38

Increase in economic losses over time is result of what?

Increase in human population and urbanization

39

Vulnerability equation

= risk amplification measures – the risk mitigation measures +/- risk perception factors

40

structural mitigation

Design features, overdesign, structural safeguards, and failsafe design meant to minimize the possible effects of a natural hazard.

41

non-structural mitigation

Emergency plans, evacuation plans, prediction of impact, and warning processes meant to minimize the possible effects of a natural hazard.

42

What kind of graph would describe the population growth?

exponential

43

Doubling time formula?

70/
% growth rate/year

44

Formula for growth rate?

fertility (birth) rate – mortality (death) rate

45

Human population grows by about how many people per year?

80 million

46

Demographic transition theory

Mortality and fertility rates decline from high to low levels because of economic and social development

47

What are some examples of carrying capacity?

IRELAND- in the 1840s introduction of potatoes in 1500s led to population increase. Potato blight in mid 1840s led to malnourishment. Population fell dramatically as over one million people died and one and a half million people emigrated.

RAPA NUI (Easter Island)- Isolated Pacific island with poor soil and little water
Settled by 25-50 Polynesians in 5th century. Survived easily on chickens and yams, plenty of free time. Reached by a Dutch ship in 1722. Carrying capacity had been drastically lowered by society’s actions: transportation of Moai had required cutting down trees, erosion of soil made yams scarce, and lack of canoes made fishing difficult and escape impossible.