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Flashcards in GHC Ch 4 Deck (35):
1

Has the past decade has brought a staggering number of mega-killer Earthquakes?

Yes!

2

What happens at divergent plate boundaries?

Divergent motion causes rocks to fail easily in tension

3

Earthquakes are typically big or small?

small and generally non-threatening

4

What happens at transform plate boundaries?

Plates slide past each other in horizontal movement

5

How is the energy required to move transform plates released?

as large earthquakes

6

What happens at convergent plate boundaries?

Great amounts of energy are required to pull a plate back into the mantle or push continents together

7

Largest earthquakes are generated at what type of boundaries?

convergent boundaries

8

What are the three types of boundaries?

Divergent, transform, and convergent

9

Where does a plate slide past another plate?

transform faults

10

Where does the Pacific plate subduct?

Subducts along northern and western edges

11

Why is Iceland interesting, relative to plate tectonics?

It is a volcanic island fed by hot spot along the mid-Atlantic ridge

12

What type of earthquakes occur in Iceland?

Swarms of moderate earthquakes too small to destroy buildings or kill people

13

What type of plate boundary is at the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

Young spreading center, new ocean basin

14

East African Rift Valley may someday do what?

split ‘Somali’ plate from African plate

15

What type of plate boundary underlies the Gulf of California, which extends north into U.S., including Salton Sea, Coachella and Imperial Valleys.

Spreading center

16

What are the three types of convergence?

Ocean-ocean, Ocean-continent, Continent-continent

17

Ocean-ocean

older, denser oceanic plate is subducted

18

Ocean-continent

oceanic plate is subducted

19

Continent-continent

both plates are too buoyant to be subducted; continental upheaval results

20

Are earthquakes at subduction zones shallow or deep?

shallow

21

How do plates move in earthquakes at subduction zones?

Compressive movements of overriding plate and subducting plate

22

Earthquakes at what plate boundaries are most damaging?

subduction zones

23

Seismic-Gap Method

If some segments of a fault have moved recently, it is reasonable to expect that unmoved portions will move next, to fill the gaps

24

Japan, 2011

9.0 quake and tsunami

25

The Indonesia 2004 earthquake is an example of what?

One Earthquake Triggers Others

26

The Mexico City 1985 earthquake is an example of what?

Long-Distance Destruction, and Earthquakes Don’t Kill, Buildings Do, and Resonance Matters

27

Where was Earth’s biggest measured earthquake?

Chile, 1960

28

The Good Friday Earthquake, Alaska, 1964, is an example of what?

Subduction of Pacific plate under Alaska creates truly large earthquakes

29

Where is 'The Upcoming Earthquake'?

Pacific Northwest

30

Where was the last major earthquake in Pacific Northwest? Magnitude?

1700, 9

31

What is an example of continent-continent collisions?

India has moved 2,000 km north into Asia since initial contact

32

Where was the deadliest earthquake in history?

China, 1556

33

Why was the China 1556 he deadliest earthquake in history?

Soft soil (with little cohesion) made caves practical homes, but shaking caused ground and caves to collapse

34

What was to blame for the excessive deaths in the Haitian earthquake, 2010?

Bad construction practices and inferior building materials. Earthquakes don't kill, buildings do.

35

What happened to buildings in the earthquakes in Turkey, 1999?

Residential buildings on soft ground, adding sand to concrete resulted in buildings collapsing during shaking