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Flashcards in GI Deck (17):
1

Accessory Digestive Organs

  • Parotid salivary gland
  • teeth
  • tongue
  • sublingual salivary gland
  • submandibular salivary gland
  • liver
  • gallbladder
  • pancreas

2

GI tract digestive organs

  • oral cavity
  • pharynx
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • large intesine
  • small intestine
  • anus

3

GI tract structural features

  • mucosa (thick in esophagus; important in tumors; sometimes not called carcinoma until it is beyond this layer) 
    • epithelial lining 
    • lamina propria (loose connective tissue) 
    • muscularis mucosa 
  • submucosa (dense connective tissue) 
  • muscularis propria (largest layer) 
  • serosa (loose connective tissue) 

4

Esophagus

mucosa-->submucosa-->muscularis-->adventitia

*no serosa, this is important in tumors becaues invasion is worrisome; squamous epithelia are normal in esophagus 

5

Stomach

Mucosa (simple columnar epithelium) -->submucosa--->muscularis (oblique, circular, longitudinal)-->serosa 

*more columnar and different type of epithelium as opposed to squamous in esophagus, also has serosa now.

*if you see a big vessel, you are in submucosa—none in epithelium 

6

Small intestine

  • simple columnar cell (enterocyte)

mucosa-->submucosa-->muscularis (inner circular layer; outer longitudinal layer) -->serosa; starts with a circular fold-->villi-->microvilli

-has goblet cells (loss of microvilli= microvilli inclusion disease)

-lymphatic nodule, intestinal gland

7

Colon

simple columnar epithelium

mucosa-->submucosa-->muscularis mucosa (circular, longitudinal) -->serosa (except in rectum, weaker protection)

 intestinal gland, lymphatic nodule

 inflammatory cells ok 

8

Digestive functions of liver

  •  production of bile,
  • hepatocytes are the key cells (binucleated, respect borders, squamous, lots of nucleoli and cytoplasm),
  • synthesis of plasma proteins
  • conversion of amino acids into glucose
  • production of urea
  • storage of glucose
  • storage of vitamin A
  • storage of iron 

9

Digestive functions of pancreas

  • a mix of exocrine and endocrine gland
  • produces digestive enzymes and hormones
  • exocrine function (acinar), 1.5 L of alkaline pancreatic juice per day into the duodenum, proteases, amylase, lipases
  • endocrine function (islets of Langerhans), insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
  • 90% of tumors in pancreas from acinar structures 

10

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Esophagus

11

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Stomach

12

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Small intestine

13

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Colon

14

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Appendix

15

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Rectum/Anus

16

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Pancreas

17

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Gallbladder