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Flashcards in GI Deck (81)
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1

GI begins

Mouth- teeth, tongue, salivary glands
Esophagus- 10' carry food to stomach
Stomach- located in ULQ(LUQ) food turn to liquid called chyme, pyloric sphincter keep food from backing into esophagus
Small intestine- 3 parts, duodenum, jejunum,ilium
Large intestine- ascending, transverse, descending illeoCecal valve keeps food from backing into small intestine

2

Abdomen

Inspect- assess contour while pt. Laying supine
Auscultate-listen for bowel sounds 1 full min every quadrant UR, UL, LL,LR
Palpate-assess for destention and tenderness measure abdominal girth
Percussion- produces sound of organs performed by MD or advance nurse

3

Assess stole specimen

Check for blood, T.A.C.O

4

Lab test

Hemoglobin/ hematocrit
12-16/38-46 for women

5

Electrolytes

K =3.5-5.5
Ca=8-10.5
NA=135-145

6

Carcinomembryonic (CEA)

Cancer marker, antigen determines cancer

7

Fecal analysis

Stool sample is collected 3 different times check for hidden blood
Blue color =positive using guaic test

8

Occult

Check for blood in stool

9

Ova & parasite

OMP, stool checked for intestinal infection. Bring to lab within 30 min of collecting for testing

10

Steatorahea

Check for fat in stool, collect stool for 3 days

11

X ray K U B

Kidney urethra and bladder..flat plate of abdomen

12

Upper GI series

Looks at esophagus into jejunum. Check for iodine or shellfish allergies. Swallow barium. Detects strictures, ulcers, tumors. Have to give a laxative after. Stool may be clay colored for 3 days

13

Lower GI series

Visualize position, movement of filling in colon. Given go-Lytely. Check for return of gag reflexes

14

Ct scan

3 demential view of the abdominal structure. NPO prior to procedure. Check for iodine and shellfish allergies.

15

Endoscopy

Viewing of oral cavity

16

Esophagogastroduodenscopy (EGD)

View of the stomach, esophagus, and duodenum for inflammation cancer and bleeding. Place pt. On left side to prevent aspirations, check vs. NPO and check for fever, bleeding and pain.

17

Proctosigmoidoscopy

Visualize sigmoid, rectum and anal canal for ulcer, punctures, lacerations, tumors and polyps. Give laxative night before. After position place in supine position to prevent orthostatic hypertension.

18

Colonoscopy

Looks at large intestine. Encourage pt to take deep breath, position on left side, with knees up. Monitor for hemorrhage or severe pain, vasovagil response.
Watch for below b/p

19

Gastric analysis

Measure secretions in stomach for duodenal ulcers cancer obstruction and pernicious

20

Basal cell secretion

Acid from stomach check ph and amount. NG tube in inserted in stomach, and hooked to a suction every 15min for 1 hour.. (4x)

21

Gastric acid stimulation

Measure gastric acid for 1 hour after SQ histamine is given

22

Endoscopic ultrasonography

Performed via endoscope using sound waves to detect tumors

23

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Non invasive test to visualize everything. Contraindicated in obese, pt. Claustrophobic, pace maker, orthopedic hardware, internal metal, all Jewelry and medication patch with metal must be removed. Procedure takes 90 min. May heard loud clinging sounds but ear phones may be used.

24

Stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth. S/S pain burning ulcer bleeding gums bad odor.
Treatment- good oral hygiene, topical med, antibiotics,

25

Candidiasis

Mild fungal infection( thrush). Treat with nystatin swish and swallow

26

Esophageal varicose

Tortuous dilated veins in lower esophagus caused by portal hypertension. Treatment is sciorosing, placement of sengitation- Blackmore tube for tamponade. Keep scissors bed side in case gastric ballon dislodge.

27

Hiatal hernia

Protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the diaphragm and into thorax. Possible causes, ascites, turn yellow, pregnancy.
S/S heart burn, difficulty swallowing, dysphasia. Treatment include anatacid, elevate bed for 1hr. Avoid caffeine, smoking, constricted clothing

28

Cancer of oral cavity

Occur anywhere in mouth or throat. S/S difficulty swallowing, chewing, experience hoarseness or cough, swollen cervical lymph nodes, filling of fullness, pain after eating

29

Cancer of the esophagus

Malignant tumors of the esophagus. Risk factors smoking, alcohol, poor oral hygiene,spicy food.

30

GI tube

Purpose is to provide nourishment, meet nutritional needs, administer mess that can not be swallowed, remove gas secretions, control bleeding, promote healing