GI and Liver Flashcards Preview

2a Pharmacology > GI and Liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI and Liver Deck (31):
1

Alginates/Antacids
2 examples

1. Gaviscon
2. Peptac

2

Alginates
Mechanism of action

- Alginates increase the viscosity of the stomach contents, which reduces reflux - form a 'floating raft'

3

Antacids
Mechanism of action

- Antacids buffer stomach acid
(e.g. sodium bicarbonate, magnesium, aluminium salts)

4

Alginates/Antacids
Uses

- GORD
- Dyspepsia

5

Alginates/Antacids
Side effects

- Compound alginates cause few side effects
- Mg salts - diarrhoea
- Al salts - constipation

6

Alginates/Antacids
Contraindications

- Well tolerated and safe in pregnancy
- Careful if they contain sodium or potassium

7

Alginates/Antacids
Interactions

- Increase alkalinity of urine so increase excretion of aspirin and lithium
- Reduce serum concentrations of ACE-I's, antibiotics, digoxin, levothyroxine, PPI's

8

Aminosalicylates
2 examples

1. Mesalazine = 1st line for UC
2. Sulfasalazine = alternative

9

Aminosalicylates
Mechanism of action

- Release 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA)
- Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects

10

Aminosalicylates
Uses

- UC
- Rheumatoid arthritis (Sulfasalazine = DMARD)

11

Aminosalicylates
Side effects

- GI upset
- Diarrhoea
- Headache
- Sulfasalazine -> oligospermia (reduction in sperm)

12

Aminosalicylates
Contraindications

Aspirin hypersensitivity
(Both are Salicytates)

13

Aminosalicylates
Interactions

Have a pH sensitive coating, so broken down differently with drugs that alter gastric pH, e.g. PPI's, lactulose

14

Iron
2 examples

1. Ferrous fumarate
2. Ferrous Sulphate

15

Iron
Mechanism of action

- Replenishes iron stores - for Haem synthesis in Hb
- Bets absorbed in ferrous state in jejunum and duodenum
- Transported as transferrin and stored as ferritin in liver, BM, spleen, muscle

16

Iron
Uses

- Iron deficiency anaemia
- Prophylaxis of IDA - in patients with RF - mennorhagia, malabsorption, gastrectomy

17

Iron
Side effects

- GI upset
- Black stool
- If IV - injection site irritation

18

Iron
Contraindications

May exacerbate bowel syndromes in patients with IBD/strictures

19

Iron
Interactions

Affects absorption of Levothyroxine and bisphosphonates - take these 2 hours before

20

Anti-motility drugs
2 examples

1. Loperamide
2. Codeine phosphate

21

Anti-motility drugs
MofA

- Agonist of opioid receptors in GI tract, increasing non-propulsive contractions of the gut SM but reducing peristalsis
- Slows down bowel contents (allowing more time for water re absorption --> hardening stools) and increases anal sphincter tone

- Loperamide = opioid, but does not penetrate CNS so no analgesic effect

22

Anti-motility drugs
Uses

- Diarrhoea (usually IBS or gastroenteritis)

23

Anti-motility drugs
Side effects

- Abdo pain
- Flatulence
- Constipation
- Opioid toxicity/dependence if CP

24

Anti-motility drugs
Contraindications

Avoid in UC and C.diff colitis

25

Anti-motility drugs
Interactions

None

26

Anti emetics examples

D2 receptor antagonists:
- Metoclopramide
- Domperidone

Phenothiazines:
- Prochlorperazine
- Chlorpromazine

H1 receptor antagonists:
- Cyclizine

27

Osmotic laxatives
2 examples

- Lactulose
- Macrogol

28

Bulk-forming laxatives
2 examples

- Ispaghula husk
- Methylcellulose

29

Give two examples of nucleotide analogues and what these are used to treat?

Used to treat hepatitis
1. Interferon-alpha2a
2. Adefovir

30

Give an example of an immunomodulatory drug that's used in treatment of hepatitis

SC PEGylated interferon 2A

31

What does DAA stand for, and give two examples

DAA = Direct acting antivirals
1. Ledipasvir
2. Sofosbuvir