Flashcards in GI Misc. 10 - The Acute Abdomen Deck (35):
What causes RUQ acute abdo problems? (6)
Biliary coliccholecystitischolangitisPneumoniaMusculoskeletalliver abscess/ hepatitis
What is the acute abdomen?
a condition of severe abdominal pain, usually requiring emergency surgery, caused by acute disease of or injury to the internal organs.
What will most patients with RUQ pain have?
what symptoms/ signs can gallstones cause?
RUQ/ epigastric painTemperatureJaundice(depends on what type of problem the gallstones are causing)
Intermittent RUQ pain (which may radiate to the shoulder blade) with no temperature or jaundice?
Constant RUQ pain (which may radiate to the shoulder blade) with a temperature but no jaundice?
Constant RUQ pain (usually), jaundice but no temperature?
Choledocholithiasis (presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct)
Constant RUQ pain with a temperature and jaundice?
Constant epigastric pain which can radiate to the back and may or may not cause a temperature or jaundice?
What causes epigastric acute abdo problems? (5)
pancreatitisPerf DUAAAGastritis/ refluxOesophagitis
What in the history is usually found in a patient with pancreatitis?
Alcohol or gallstones sometimes
How is pancreatitis diagnosed?
Amylase more than 300
What tests are done on a patient with probable pancreatitis/
Amylase (more than 300 for diagnosis)ScoringUSS (to look for gallstones)CT (if you're unsure if a patient has pancreatitis)
What in the history can indicate a perforated DU?
Alcohol intakeNSAID use
Why do you need to take an erect x-ray for a patient with a suspected DU?
To look for air under the diaphragm
What presentation should make you suspect an AAA?
Severe epigastric pain radiating to the back with collapse
How is gastritis/ GORD/ oesophagitis diagnosed?
Upper GI endoscopy
What causes an acute abdomen in the LUQ? (3)
Splenic injury/ rupture/ infarctPneumoniaMusculoskeletal
What test should be done on a trauma patient to rule out abdominal injury?
What history is usually present with spleen problems?
Splenomegaly or injury
What causes an acute abdomen in the flank areas?
Where does renal pain often radiate?
To the back
What can renal colic pain mimic?
A ruptured AAA
What wil urinalysis show in a patient with renal colic?
Blood in the urineLeucocytes (if they have an infection)
What causes an acute abdomen in umbilicus?
Elderly male, severe pain radiating to back, collapse, CV history?
AAA until proven otherwise - need an urgent CT
Presentation of obstruction?
Generalised abdo painDistended abdomenvomiting constipation
Causes of obstruction?
What causes a suprapubic acute abdomen? (4)
LIF acute abdomen causes? (5)
DiverticulitisEctopic pregnancyTorsion of ovarian cystHernia (femoral/ inguinal)Gastroenteritis
What is complicated diverticulitis?
Complicated diverticulitis refers to the clinical presentation of acute diverticulitis with inflammatory manifestations and complications, such as feculent peritonitis, obstruction, perforation, phlegmon, and/or abscess formation (the most severe complication is perforation - usually need a Hartmans procedure)
What things should make you suspicious of an ectopic pregnancy?What should you do?
Child bearing ageSudden onsetLIF/ RIF painSepsis + shockBHCGdo a pregnancy test
Sudden onset suprapubic pain that is severe and mid-cycle?
What should you always examine the groin for in all acute abdomen problems?