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Flashcards in GI module 1 Deck (109)
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1

What are the structures of the alimentary canal?

The alimentary canal is the GI tract:
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, rectum, anus

2

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?

Liver, gallbladder, exocrine pancreas

3

name the layers of the GI tract from inner to outer

Mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
adventitious (serosa)

4

Which layer needs to be smooth enough to be able to pass and absorb/neutralize stool?

mucosa layer

5

What are the 3 parts of the mucosa layer of the GI tract?

Mucosa epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosae

6

Which layer of the mucosa allows local movement and has a role in IBD and or secretion/absorption dysfunction?

Muscularis mucosae

7

What layer of the GI tract contains glands and associated ducts?

submucosa

8

What are the sublayers of the muscular layer of the GI tract?

Circular
Longitudinal

9

What is the adventitious (serosa) layer made up of?

connective tissue

10

What part of the Nerovous system is the enteric system part of?

ANS

11

What is the parasympathetic system responsible for in the GI?

Excitatory action

12

What is the sympathetic system responsible for in the GI?

Inhibitory action

13

What are the 3 enteric plexuses?

submucosal plexus (meissner)
Myenteric plexus (Auerbach)
Subserosal plexus

14

What plexus is also known as the Meissner plexus?

submucosal

15

what plexus is also known as the Auerbach plexus?

Myenteric

16

Where is the submucosal plexus located and what is it responsible for?

Submucosa
Secretion

17

Where is the myenteric plexus located and what is it responsible for?

Between circular and longitudinal layers of muscular
Motility

18

What is the subserosal plexus responsible for in the GI tract?

ANS innervation of BV and CT

19

What are the 3 general functional components of enteric plexuses?

Sensory neurons
Motor
Interneurons

20

What do the sensory neurons in the enteric plexus monitor in the GI tract?

Chemical status

21

What do the motor neurons in the enteric plexus control in the GI tract?

Motility (peristalsis)
Blood flow (smooth muscle of GI vasc.)
Secretions (cells of mucosa/submucosa)

22

What do the the interneurons of the enteric plexus control in the GI tract?

Communication between sensory and motor _ mechanism for intrinsic control (short loop reflexes)

23

What do the terms appetite and satiety mean?

appetite - Hunger
satiety - sensation of fullness

24

What two centers (nuclei) control appetite and satiety?

Lateral center (appetite)
Medial center (satiety)

25

Where are the centers for appetite and satiety located?

hypothalamus

26

What hormone is released by the stomach and sends a chemical message to the brain to stimulate appetite?

Ghrelin

27

What hormones stimulate the medial center in the brain to suppress appetite?

GI hormones (CCK, GLP-1 etc.)
Leptin
PYY
Insulin

28

Where is Leptin released from and what is significant about it?

Fat cells and chief cells
It is the longest lasting of all the hormones that stimulate appetite

29

Where is PYY released from

the SI after a meal

30

When is Insulin released?

by pancreas after increased blood glucose after a meal