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Flashcards in GI Part 1 Deck (27):
1

What kind of GIT to carnivores have?

Big stomach, short intestinal tract

2

What kind of GIT do birds have?

Food stored in crop, glandular stomach + muscular stomach (gizzard)

3

Major functions of GIT:

Transport food
Digest absorbable particles
Absorption of food components --> blood
Regulate water + electrolyte balance
Immunologic barrier (GALT)
Thermoregulation

4

Species difference in how cattle eat?

Wrap tongue around forage and incisors

5

Species difference in how pigs eat?

Snout and mandible

6

Mastication in carnivores:

Movement of mandible vertical. Molars + premolars in upper and lower jaws move against each other like scissors

7

Mastication in herbivores

Spend long time masticating, upper and lower jaws are large, providing room for teeth with large chewing surfaces. Mastication movement = horizontal

8

What step is after mastication?

Motility of GI tract segments

9

4 functions of GI tract movements?

To propel ingesta
To retain ingesta at a given site for digestion, absorption, storage
To break up food material physically and mix with digestive secretions
To circulate ingesta so all portions come into contact with absorptive surfaces

10

What is the first motility pattern in the GIT?

Deglutition

11

What are the 2 phases of deglutition?

Voluntary and involuntary

12

What is the voluntary phase of deglutition?

Aka oral phase
Food molded into bolus and pushed into pharynx using tongue --> activation of sensory nerves --> initiation of involuntary part of deglutition

13

What is the involuntary phase of deglutition?

Aka swallow reflex
Occurs in pharynx + esophagus --> directs food into digestive system away from upper airways

14

What is the deglutition transit time in dogs (oral cavity to stomach)?

4-5 seconds

15

4 steps in deglutition

1. (Respiration stops momentarily) Soft palate elevated and closes nasopharynx to prevent food from entering nostrils
2. Tongue pressed against hard palate to close oropharynx
3. Epiglottis moved backwards to cover trachea
4. Upper esophageal sphincter opens --> peristaltic contractions. Now trachea can be reopened and respiration continues

16

What do disorders of deglutition have in common?

Difficulty in swallowing which may result from NM disorder or mechanical obstruction

17

What are the 2 types of dysphagia?

Oropharyngeal + esophageal

18

What is oropharyngeal dysphagia?

Malfunction of pharynx + upper esophageal sphincter

19

What is esophageal dysphagia?

Malfunction of esophagus

20

What is aspiration?

A dysphagia in which food particles / fluids, or stomach contents (acid reflux) reach upper airways

21

Major salivary glands?

Parotid, mandibular, sublingual

22

Small salivary glands?

Ventral jaw glands, palate + pharyngeal glands, lip glands, zygomatic glands

23

Serous type of secretion?

Parotid, lingulaes, bucales

24

Mucous type of secretion?

Paracarunculares, bucales

25

Seromucous secretion?

Mandibular, sublingual, labials

26

What are the primary functions of saliva?

Protect buccal mucosa/teeth
Facilitate deglutition
Initiate enzymatic carb digestion
PH regulation (HCO3-)

27

Secondary functions:

Immunological (lysozymes, IgGs), thermoregulation (panting), defense (llamas, alpacas)