Flashcards in GI Part 1 Deck (27):
What kind of GIT to carnivores have?
Big stomach, short intestinal tract
What kind of GIT do birds have?
Food stored in crop, glandular stomach + muscular stomach (gizzard)
Major functions of GIT:
Digest absorbable particles
Absorption of food components --> blood
Regulate water + electrolyte balance
Immunologic barrier (GALT)
Species difference in how cattle eat?
Wrap tongue around forage and incisors
Species difference in how pigs eat?
Snout and mandible
Mastication in carnivores:
Movement of mandible vertical. Molars + premolars in upper and lower jaws move against each other like scissors
Mastication in herbivores
Spend long time masticating, upper and lower jaws are large, providing room for teeth with large chewing surfaces. Mastication movement = horizontal
What step is after mastication?
Motility of GI tract segments
4 functions of GI tract movements?
To propel ingesta
To retain ingesta at a given site for digestion, absorption, storage
To break up food material physically and mix with digestive secretions
To circulate ingesta so all portions come into contact with absorptive surfaces
What is the first motility pattern in the GIT?
What are the 2 phases of deglutition?
Voluntary and involuntary
What is the voluntary phase of deglutition?
Aka oral phase
Food molded into bolus and pushed into pharynx using tongue --> activation of sensory nerves --> initiation of involuntary part of deglutition
What is the involuntary phase of deglutition?
Aka swallow reflex
Occurs in pharynx + esophagus --> directs food into digestive system away from upper airways
What is the deglutition transit time in dogs (oral cavity to stomach)?
4 steps in deglutition
1. (Respiration stops momentarily) Soft palate elevated and closes nasopharynx to prevent food from entering nostrils
2. Tongue pressed against hard palate to close oropharynx
3. Epiglottis moved backwards to cover trachea
4. Upper esophageal sphincter opens --> peristaltic contractions. Now trachea can be reopened and respiration continues
What do disorders of deglutition have in common?
Difficulty in swallowing which may result from NM disorder or mechanical obstruction
What are the 2 types of dysphagia?
Oropharyngeal + esophageal
What is oropharyngeal dysphagia?
Malfunction of pharynx + upper esophageal sphincter
What is esophageal dysphagia?
Malfunction of esophagus
What is aspiration?
A dysphagia in which food particles / fluids, or stomach contents (acid reflux) reach upper airways
Major salivary glands?
Parotid, mandibular, sublingual
Small salivary glands?
Ventral jaw glands, palate + pharyngeal glands, lip glands, zygomatic glands
Serous type of secretion?
Parotid, lingulaes, bucales
Mucous type of secretion?
Mandibular, sublingual, labials
What are the primary functions of saliva?
Protect buccal mucosa/teeth
Initiate enzymatic carb digestion
PH regulation (HCO3-)