GI Tract Imaging Flashcards Preview

Year 2 - GI System > GI Tract Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Tract Imaging Deck (28):
1

There are three types of endoscopy, what are they?

Upper GI
ERCP
Colonoscopy

2

What precautions must be used for an endoscopy?

Sedation
Laxative (for lower GI tract)

3

What are the possible problems with an endoscopy?

Small risk of perforation
Can be poorly tolerated by some people

4

What must be done in order to perform a fluoroscopy?

It required contrast (barium or gastromiro)
Requires distension of the tube with gas or air

5

What is a fluoroscopy?

A study of moving body structures
- a continuous X-Ray beam is passed though the body part being examined

6

What are the benefits of using ultrasound?

It uses sonar - not radiation
Fast
Cheap
Safe

7

List some of the ways in which the GI tract is imaged?

Endoscopy
Plain X-Ray
Fluoroscopic studies
Cross sectional studies
CT
Ultrasound
MRI

8

What are the limitations of ultrasound?

Habitus - the position of the body
Gas inside the tube - you can't see inside it

9

What are the negatives of CT scanning?

Uses a lot of radiation
Doesn't have very good tissue differentiation
Used an intravenous and oral dye, or water

10

What is a CT scan mainly used for?

Diagnosis of disease
Staging of malignagcy
Assessing response to treatment
Percutaneous biopsy

11

Describe a PET-CT

It's a combined imaging modality
- a functional imaging of radioactive tracer uptake fused with anatomical information from CT

12

What's the most commonly used tracer in a PET-CT and what is it for?

FDG - flurodeoxyglucose (a glucose analogue)
It accumulates in metabolically active cells, making them easier to see

13

What are the benefits of an MRI machine?

It uses no radiation
Has excellent soft tissue differentiation

14

What are the limitation of using an MRI machine?

Can't be used on people who have pacemakers or cerebral aneurysm clips
It's a very slow procedure

15

What is the specific GI roles of using an MRI?

Non invasive imaging of biliary tree and small bowel
Can stage rectal cancer
Can diagnose liver lesions

16

What is an MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopanceatography) scan?

It's a scan that uses magnetic resonance imaging to
produce pictures of the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder and pancreas.

17

What are the pros and cons of a rigid sigmoidoscopy?

Pros - immediate, unprepared
Cons - very limited

18

What are the pros and cons of a flexible sigmoidoscopy And radiology?

Pros - 2 unseated examinations
Cons - 2 preparations

19

What are the pros and cons of a CT pneumocolon?

Pros - gives you information on outside the colon as well
Cons - doesn't allow biopsies

20

What are the pros and cons of a colonoscopy?

Pros - can take a biopsy
Cons - needs preparation, small risk, sedated

21

What are the pros and cons of a minimal preparation stool CT?

Pros - easy for the frail elderly
Cons - quite crude

22

What are the pros and cons of a back to back colonoscopy?

Pros - quality assurance
Cons - cant be done simply for quality assurance because it's very stressful

23

What are two of the structures colonic polyps can take?

Tubular adenoma
Villous adenoma

24

Name some of the types of cancer that can be found in the GI system.

Rectal cancer
Polaroid carcinoma
Colonic adenocarcinoma

25

What is a mesorectal excision?

A transverse slice through rectal cancer in the large intestine

26

What things are risk factor for the development of a stress ulcer?

Shock
Sepsis
Hypotension
Trauma (e.g. Sever head injury, burns)

27

What is the most common cause of gastric ulceration?

Drugs - e.g. Iron medication, gold, caffeine, cocaine
Ulcer erodes blood vessels

28

Who qualifies for the bowel screening programme in Scotland?

Men and women between the ages of 50 and 74
- once every two years