Flashcards in Structure And Function Of The Liver Deck (26):
What are the names of the blood vessels which supply the liver?
Hepatic artery (30-40% blood supply)
Portal vein (60-70% blood supply)
What vessels are in the portal triad?
Portal vein, bile ducts and hepatic artery.
What is the name of the vein leaving the liver?
The hepatic vein
Which quadrant is the liver located?
Right upper quadrant
What are the three types of surface found on hepatocytes?
Sinusoidal, intercellular and canalicular
Describes the endothelium of the sinusoids in the liver?
It is fenestrated and lacks a complete basement membrane
Name all the types of liver cells.
Kupffer cells (macrophages)
Perisinusoidal (fat-storing) cells
What is the threefold definition of cirrhosis?
Diffuse process with fibrosis and nodule formation
What is cirrhosis?
End stage liver disease
- result of chronic inflammation over many years
Roughly, how can cirrhosis occur?
Persistence of injury-causing agent
Fibrous scarring and hepatocyte regeneration
Eventually irreversible and cirrhosis develops
Briefly describe the pathogenesis of cirrhosis.
Firstly, hepatocyte injury leads to progressive liver cell loss.
This then causes chronic inflammation (leading to fibrosis) and hepatocyte regeneration (leading to hyper plastic nodules).
Both of these things causes architectural abnormalities, which leads to cirrhosis and ischaemia (ischaemia causes more progressive liver cell loss and the problem, worsens)
Name some of the causes of cirrhosis (acquired and inherited)
Alcohol or alcohol-like
Name some of the complications of cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular (liver) cancer
What are the common complication of portal hypertension?
Portal systemic shunts and varies
Name some of the proteins produced by the liver
Coagulation and fibrinolysis proteins (e.g factors II, V, VII-XIII)
What are common effects of liver failure?
Altered intermediary metabolism (e.g. Impaired synthesis of urea and glycogen)
Altered xenobiotic metabolism (e.g. Drugs)
Immune, circulatory and endocrine disturbances
List 6 functions of the liver.
Amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
Plasma protein and enzyme synthesis
Production of bile
Storage of proteins, glycogen, vitamins and metals
What makes up the portal triad?
Where does the portal triad enter the liver?
At the porta hepatis
What are the three structural/functional units of the liver?
Name some reactions which take place in zone one in the acini.
As its the most oxygenated area
- respiratory chain
- citric acid cycle
- urea synthesis
- production and excretion of bile
- fatty acid oxygenation
What processes occur in zone three in the acini?
This is the least oxygenated area, and so the place of the metabolic reactions
- xenobiotic mechanism
- glutamine synthesis
What are the three types of connective tissue in the liver?
Describe the biliary tree from cancaliculi to the duodenum.
Intrahepatic bile ducts
Right and left hepatic ducts
Common hepatic duct
Common bile duct (after being joined by the cystic duct)
Bile duct (after being joined by the pancreatic duct)
Which liver function tests will be abnormal (and how) in cholestsis?
Bilirubin, ALP and GGT will all be increased