Structure And Function Of The Liver Flashcards Preview

Year 2 - GI System > Structure And Function Of The Liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure And Function Of The Liver Deck (26):
1

What are the names of the blood vessels which supply the liver?

Hepatic artery (30-40% blood supply)
Portal vein (60-70% blood supply)

2

What vessels are in the portal triad?

Portal vein, bile ducts and hepatic artery.

3

What is the name of the vein leaving the liver?

The hepatic vein

4

Which quadrant is the liver located?

Right upper quadrant

5

What are the three types of surface found on hepatocytes?

Sinusoidal, intercellular and canalicular

6

Describes the endothelium of the sinusoids in the liver?

It is fenestrated and lacks a complete basement membrane

7

Name all the types of liver cells.

Hepatocytes
Endothelial cells
Kupffer cells (macrophages)
Perisinusoidal (fat-storing) cells
Liver-associated lymphocytes

8

What is the threefold definition of cirrhosis?

Diffuse process with fibrosis and nodule formation

9

What is cirrhosis?

End stage liver disease
- result of chronic inflammation over many years

10

Roughly, how can cirrhosis occur?

Persistence of injury-causing agent
Fibrous scarring and hepatocyte regeneration
Eventually irreversible and cirrhosis develops

11

Briefly describe the pathogenesis of cirrhosis.

Firstly, hepatocyte injury leads to progressive liver cell loss.
This then causes chronic inflammation (leading to fibrosis) and hepatocyte regeneration (leading to hyper plastic nodules).
Both of these things causes architectural abnormalities, which leads to cirrhosis and ischaemia (ischaemia causes more progressive liver cell loss and the problem, worsens)

12

Name some of the causes of cirrhosis (acquired and inherited)

Alcohol or alcohol-like
Biliary disease
Unknown
Heamochromatosis

13

Name some of the complications of cirrhosis.

Portal hypertension
Liver failure
Hepatocellular (liver) cancer

14

What are the common complication of portal hypertension?

Portal systemic shunts and varies
Ascites
Splenomeagly

15

Name some of the proteins produced by the liver

Albumin
Transport proteins
Coagulation and fibrinolysis proteins (e.g factors II, V, VII-XIII)
Complement
Protease inhibitors

16

What are common effects of liver failure?

Jaundice
Coagulation disorders
Altered intermediary metabolism (e.g. Impaired synthesis of urea and glycogen)
Altered xenobiotic metabolism (e.g. Drugs)
Immune, circulatory and endocrine disturbances

17

List 6 functions of the liver.

Amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
Plasma protein and enzyme synthesis
Production of bile
Detoxification
Storage of proteins, glycogen, vitamins and metals
Immune functions

18

What makes up the portal triad?

Hepatic artery
Portal vein
Bile duct

19

Where does the portal triad enter the liver?

At the porta hepatis

20

What are the three structural/functional units of the liver?

Portal lobule
Classic lobule
Hepatic acini

21

Name some reactions which take place in zone one in the acini.

As its the most oxygenated area
- respiratory chain
- citric acid cycle
- gluconeogensis
- urea synthesis
- production and excretion of bile
- fatty acid oxygenation

22

What processes occur in zone three in the acini?

This is the least oxygenated area, and so the place of the metabolic reactions
- glycolysis
- xenobiotic mechanism
- glutamine synthesis

23

What are the three types of connective tissue in the liver?

Liver capsule
Portal tracts
Parenchymal reticulin

24

Describe the biliary tree from cancaliculi to the duodenum.

Canaliculi
Intrahepatic bile ducts
Right and left hepatic ducts
Common hepatic duct
Common bile duct (after being joined by the cystic duct)
Bile duct (after being joined by the pancreatic duct)

25

Which liver function tests will be abnormal (and how) in cholestsis?

Bilirubin, ALP and GGT will all be increased

26

What does increased AST and ALT liver function tests mean?

Hepatocellular damage - often hepatitis