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CP1.02_Histology > Gibney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gibney Deck (57):
1

Three layers of the heart:

  1. Endocardium: inner most layer
  2. Myocardium: cardiac muscle cells
  3. Epicardium: outer most layer

2

Endocardium contents:

  1. Simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)
  2. Subendothelial CT; merges with a thicker subendocardial CT.  This layer contains the conduction system (purkinje fibers).

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What layer of the heart contains the conduction system (purkinje fibers)?

  • subendocardial CT layer of the endocardium

4

Myocardium contents:

  • cardiac muscle cells
  • Atrium: ANP (stored granules); decreases BP
  • Ventricle: BNP (stored as proBNP); decreases BP

5

Function of ANP and BNP:

  • decreases blood pressure
    • ANP stored in atria
    • BNP stored in ventricles

6

Epicardium contents:

  1. coronary blood vessels.
  2. varying amounts of fat.
     

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10

Purkinje fiber function and location:

 

  • Impulse-conducting cardiac fibers 
  • extend from AV node found beneath the endocardium lining the interventricular septum

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13

What is this an image of?

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  • Atrial cardiac myocyte with ANP granules (Endocrine and contractile function)

14

Function of ANP granules (Atrial natriuretic protein):

  • hormone that lowers blood pressure
  • antagonistic to Renin secreted by cells in kidney

15

The three layers of blood vessels:

  1. tunica intima (related to endocardium)
  2. tunica media (related to myocardium)
  3. tunica adventitia (related to epicardium)

16

Tunica intima location and contents: 

  • related to endocardium
  • Simple squamous epithelium with a basement membrane 
  • Varying amounts of connective tissue

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Tunica media location and contents: 

  • related to myocardium
  • Circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue
     

18

Tunica adventitia location and contents: 

  • related to epicardium
  • CT containing collagen and elastic fibers
  • Vaso vasorum and nervi vascularis

19

Key feature of elastic arteries:

elastic sheets between smooth muscle cells

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tunica media of elastic artery

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tunica media in elastic artery

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What is this an image of?

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vaso vasorum

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elastic artery

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24

Key feature of muscular artery:

internal and external elastic lamina

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26

What kind of artery is this?

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muscular

note internal and external elastic lamina

27

What kind of artery is this?

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muscular

note internal and external elastic lamina

28

Function and composition of arterioles:
 

  • Resistance vessels
  • One or two layers of circular smooth muscle cells
  • Simple squamous epithelium lines lumen

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31

What type of capillary is this?

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fenestrated

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What type of capillary is this?

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continuous

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What type of capillary is this?

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sinusoid/discontinuous

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Continuous Capillary characteristics:

  • Complete endothelial cells and basement membrane
  • Tight junctions
  • Pinocytotic vesicles that function in transepithelial transport
  • Presence of pericytes (stem cells)

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Where are continuous capillaries found?

muscle, brain, thymus, bone, lung and other tissues.

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What is the arrow pointing to?

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continuous capillary in cardiac muscle

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What are the arrowheads pointing to?

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continuous capillaries

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What is this an image of?

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fenestrated capillary

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Fenestrated Capillary characteristics:

  • Endothelial cells have many fenestrae (pores) with or without a diaphragm.  
  • continuous basal lamina.
     

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Where are fenestrated capillaries located?
 

  • tissues with substantial fluid transport:
    • endocrine glands and kidney

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fenestrated capillary

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42

What are the arrows pointing to?

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liver sinusoid capillaries

43

Discontinuous/Sinusoidal Capillary characteristics:

  • Incomplete endothelial lining and basal lamina with gaps and holes between and within endothelial cells which are larger than in fenestrated capillaries
  • Found where the relation between blood and parenchyma are needed
  • Blood cells pass readily through the walls

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Where are Discontinuous/Sinusoidal Capillaries found?

  • liver, spleen and adrenal gland

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What is this an image of, and what are the arrows pointing to?

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  • Venus sinus (discontinuous/sinusoidal capillary)
  • arrows = gaps in capillary

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47

How to tell vein from artery:

  • veins have:
    • thinner wall
    • less elastic and muscular tissue
    • tunics lack clear boundaris
    • valves present
    • postmortem blood

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49

What is this an image of?

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vein with valve (arrowheads)

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How to differentiate a vein from a venule:

  • venules have incomplete or absent tunica medias

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52

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Venule with pericyte (arrow)

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53

Function of lymphatic vessels:

  1. Conducts immune cells and lymph to lymph nodes
  2. Remove excess fluid accumulated in interstitial spaces
  3. Transport chylomicrons collected by lacteals

54

Lymphatic vessel characteristics:

  • Capillaries begin as dilated, closed endothelial cell-lined tubes
  • No basement membrane
  • No blood cells in lumen
     

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What is this an image of?

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lymph vessel in respiratory tract

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What is this an image of?

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  • Lymph vessels in villi of small intestines
    • called lacteals and function in transport of fat

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What is this an image of?

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lymph vessel bringing fluid to lymph node