Gibney Flashcards Preview

CP1.02_Histology > Gibney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gibney Deck (57):
1

Three layers of the heart:

  1. Endocardium: inner most layer
  2. Myocardium: cardiac muscle cells
  3. Epicardium: outer most layer

2

Endocardium contents:

  1. Simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)
  2. Subendothelial CT; merges with a thicker subendocardial CT.  This layer contains the conduction system (purkinje fibers).

3

What layer of the heart contains the conduction system (purkinje fibers)?

  • subendocardial CT layer of the endocardium

4

Myocardium contents:

  • cardiac muscle cells
  • Atrium: ANP (stored granules); decreases BP
  • Ventricle: BNP (stored as proBNP); decreases BP

5

Function of ANP and BNP:

  • decreases blood pressure
    • ANP stored in atria
    • BNP stored in ventricles

6

Epicardium contents:

  1. coronary blood vessels.
  2. varying amounts of fat.
     

7

Label all:

8

Label all:

9

Label all:

10

Purkinje fiber function and location:

 

  • Impulse-conducting cardiac fibers 
  • extend from AV node found beneath the endocardium lining the interventricular septum

11

Label all:

12

Label all:

13

What is this an image of?

  • Atrial cardiac myocyte with ANP granules (Endocrine and contractile function)

14

Function of ANP granules (Atrial natriuretic protein):

  • hormone that lowers blood pressure
  • antagonistic to Renin secreted by cells in kidney

15

The three layers of blood vessels:

  1. tunica intima (related to endocardium)
  2. tunica media (related to myocardium)
  3. tunica adventitia (related to epicardium)

16

Tunica intima location and contents: 

  • related to endocardium
  • Simple squamous epithelium with a basement membrane 
  • Varying amounts of connective tissue

17

Tunica media location and contents: 

  • related to myocardium
  • Circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue
     

18

Tunica adventitia location and contents: 

  • related to epicardium
  • CT containing collagen and elastic fibers
  • Vaso vasorum and nervi vascularis

19

Key feature of elastic arteries:

elastic sheets between smooth muscle cells

20

Label all:

tunica media of elastic artery

21

Label all:

tunica media in elastic artery

22

What is this an image of?

vaso vasorum

23

Label all:

elastic artery

24

Key feature of muscular artery:

internal and external elastic lamina

25

Label all:

26

What kind of artery is this?

muscular

note internal and external elastic lamina

27

What kind of artery is this?

muscular

note internal and external elastic lamina

28

Function and composition of arterioles:
 

  • Resistance vessels
  • One or two layers of circular smooth muscle cells
  • Simple squamous epithelium lines lumen

29

Label all:

30

Label all:

31

What type of capillary is this?

fenestrated

32

What type of capillary is this?

continuous

33

What type of capillary is this?

sinusoid/discontinuous

34

Continuous Capillary characteristics:

  • Complete endothelial cells and basement membrane
  • Tight junctions
  • Pinocytotic vesicles that function in transepithelial transport
  • Presence of pericytes (stem cells)

35

Where are continuous capillaries found?

muscle, brain, thymus, bone, lung and other tissues.

36

What is the arrow pointing to?

continuous capillary in cardiac muscle

37

What are the arrowheads pointing to?

continuous capillaries

38

What is this an image of?

fenestrated capillary

39

Fenestrated Capillary characteristics:

  • Endothelial cells have many fenestrae (pores) with or without a diaphragm.  
  • continuous basal lamina.
     

40

Where are fenestrated capillaries located?
 

  • tissues with substantial fluid transport:
    • endocrine glands and kidney

41

Label all and type of capillary:

fenestrated capillary

42

What are the arrows pointing to?

liver sinusoid capillaries

43

Discontinuous/Sinusoidal Capillary characteristics:

  • Incomplete endothelial lining and basal lamina with gaps and holes between and within endothelial cells which are larger than in fenestrated capillaries
  • Found where the relation between blood and parenchyma are needed
  • Blood cells pass readily through the walls

44

Where are Discontinuous/Sinusoidal Capillaries found?

  • liver, spleen and adrenal gland

45

What is this an image of, and what are the arrows pointing to?

  • Venus sinus (discontinuous/sinusoidal capillary)
  • arrows = gaps in capillary

46

Label all:

47

How to tell vein from artery:

  • veins have:
    • thinner wall
    • less elastic and muscular tissue
    • tunics lack clear boundaris
    • valves present
    • postmortem blood

48

Label all:

49

What is this an image of?

vein with valve (arrowheads)

50

How to differentiate a vein from a venule:

  • venules have incomplete or absent tunica medias

51

Label all:

52

Label all:

What is this an image of?

Venule with pericyte (arrow)

53

Function of lymphatic vessels:

  1. Conducts immune cells and lymph to lymph nodes
  2. Remove excess fluid accumulated in interstitial spaces
  3. Transport chylomicrons collected by lacteals

54

Lymphatic vessel characteristics:

  • Capillaries begin as dilated, closed endothelial cell-lined tubes
  • No basement membrane
  • No blood cells in lumen
     

55

What is this an image of?

lymph vessel in respiratory tract

56

What is this an image of?

  • Lymph vessels in villi of small intestines
    • called lacteals and function in transport of fat

57

What is this an image of?

lymph vessel bringing fluid to lymph node