GIT: Stomach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GIT: Stomach Deck (49)
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1

glands in the ___ and ___ are mucus secreting

 

glands in the cardia and antrum are mucus secreting

2

glands in the ___ and ___ (____) have chief cells which secrete ___ and parietal cells which secrete ____ and ____

glands in the corpus and fundus (oxyntic) have chief cells which secrete pepsinogen and parietal cells which secrete acid and intrinsic factor

3

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is associated with ____, ____ and ____

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is associated with Turner syndrome, trisomy 18 and esophageal atresia

4

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is caused by concentric ____ of ____

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is caused by concentric hypertrophy of circular muscular coat

5

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is treated by ____

congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is treated by surgery (myotomy)

6

acute gastritis affects the ____

full thickness mucosal injury = _____

acute gastritis affects the superficial mucosa (loss of surface epi.)

full thickness mucosal injury = ulcers

7

in acute gastritis, there is edema and congestion of the ____ and ____ are found in the surface epithelium and glands

in acute gastritis, there is edema and congestion of the lamina propria and neutrophils are found in the surface epithelium and glands

8

endoscopy of a patient with chronic gastritis would show ____

endoscopy of a patient with chronic gastritis would show  normal to patchy/diffuse erythema +/- hemorrhage to boggy with thick mucosal folds

9

in chronic gastritis, ____ is found in the lamina propria

in chronic gastritis, inflammatory infiltrate (lymphocytes and plasma cells) is found in the lamina propria

10

in chronic gastritis, ____ is found in the surface epithelium and glandular lumen

in chronic gastritis, PMNs is found in the surface epithelium and glandular lumen

11

in chronic gastritis, ____ is found, mainly superficial, which is a maker of H. pylori infection

in chronic gastritis, reactive lymphoid aggregates is found, mainly superficial, which is a maker of H. pylori infection

12

describe what H. pylori infection can lead to

13

describe diagnosis of H. pylori (invasive vs. non-invasive)

14

in autoimmune gastritis, there are autoantibodies to ____

in autoimmune gastritis, there are autoantibodies to parietal cell antigens/intrinsic factor

15

in autoimmune gastritis, there is destruction of ___ glands which leads to ___ and ____

in autoimmune gastritis, there is destruction of oxyntic glands which leads to achlorhydria and increased gastrin levels

16

in autoimmune gastritis, there is an increased risk for ___ and ____

in autoimmune gastritis, there is an increased risk for gastric carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids)

17

describe the effects of autoimmune gastritis

18

gastric ulcers are caused by a loss of mucosa that extends through ____ or deeper

gastric ulcers are caused by a loss of mucosa that extends through muscularis mucosae or deeper

19

describe acute gastric ulcers

20

the pathogenesis of acute gastric ulcers is related to ____ and ____

the pathogenesis of acute gastric ulcers is related to systemic acidosis and hypoxia (severe trauma and burns) and vagal stimulation (intracranial lesions)

21

list the sites of peptic ulcer disease

22

list clinical features of a peptic ulcer

  • clinical features:
    • burning epigastric pain 1-3 hours after meals
    • relieved by food and alkali
    • worse at night
    • associated weight loss
    • gastric outlet obstruction

23

list complications of peptic ulcers

  • complications:
    • bleeding
    • perforation
    • gastric outlet obstruction
    • malignant transformation:
      • unknown in duodenal ulcer and exceedingly rare in gastric ulcer

24

a risk factor for ___ gastritis is severe burns, which causes ____

a risk factor for acute gastritis is severe burns, which causes Curling ulcer 

caused by hypovolemia → decreased blood flow to stomach → blood can't "sweep away" the acid or bring nutrients → acute gastritis

25

a risk factor for ___ gastritis is increased intracranial pressure which leads to ____

explain how this occurs

a cause of acute gastritis is increased intracranial pressure which leads to Cushing ulcer

increased intracranial pressure → increased vagal stimulation → increased ACh → binds to parietal cell and increases acid production

26

describe the mechanism of NSAID injury

  • inhibition of enzyme COX
    • rate limiting step in converting arachidonic acid to PGs
    • PGs protect gastric mucosa
      • maintain blood flow, increase mucus and bicarb. secretion and augment epithelial defenses
  • direct irritant
    • denudation of surface epi., increased mucosal permeability to ions

27

intestinal gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with ____

intestinal gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with H. pylori

28

diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma is caused by a mutation in ____

diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma is caused by a mutation in E-cadherin

29

in diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma, ____ cells can be seen when the single cells proliferate (since they are detached from one another because of the mutation in E-cadherin)

in diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma, signet ring cells can be seen when the single cells proliferate (since they are detached from one another because of the mutation in E-cadherin)

30

in diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma, there is a _____ appearance

in diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma, there is a linitis plastica appearance