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Flashcards in Glaciers Deck (17):

what is a glacier

Glaciation is the process or state being covered by ice glaciers or ice sheets.


what is an ice age

An ice age is a long period in time when the Earth’s temperature was reduced resulting in the expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and glaciers. During the last ice age up to 32% of the land area was covered by ice.


what is an ice sheet

An ice sheet is a chunk of glacier ice that covers the land surrounding it and is greater than 50,000 kilometers wide


what is an ice cap

An ice cap covers less than 50,000 square kilometers and usually feeds a series of glaciers around its edges. Ice flows away from this highest point toward the cap’s edges.


what is a corrie

deep bowl shaped landform created by the glacier


what does plucking mean

rocks, stones and debris are pulled out of the ground when the ice freezes to them before the glacier moves on again


what does the term abrasion mean in glacier context

it is the material carried by the glacier scrapes and scours the landscape as the glacier passes.


what is the snout

it is the end of the glacier


what is terminal moraine

material pushed in front of the glacier


what are crevasses

deep cracks in the glacier caused when it moves down the slope.


what is a tarn

a lake that forms in the corrie when the glacier disappears


what is thaw weathering

Water that enters cracks in rocks freezes and when it does, it expands. Repeated freeze and thaw means cracks in the rock expand until the rock is fractured.


what landscapes does glaciation produce (hard)

• Corries
• Arêtes
• Pyramidal peaks
• U-shaped valleys
• Hanging valleys
• Truncated spurs


what is an arête

an arête is a knife-edge ridge. It is formed when two neighbouring corries run back to back. As each glacier erodes either side of the ridge, the edge becomes steeper and the ridge becomes narrower, e.g. Striding Edge found on Helvellyn in the Lake District.


what is a pyramidal peak

A pyramidal peak is formed where three or more corries and arêtes meet. The glaciers have carved away at the top of a mountain, creating a sharply pointed summit.


what is glacial till

Glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment. Till is made up from material eroded by the moving ice of a glacier.


what are the types of moraine (4)

terminal moraine
lateral moraine
medial moraine
ground moraine