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Flashcards in Glands Of Males Deck (31):
1

Where are the seminal vesicles located?

Between bladder fundus and rectum

2

What separates the seminal vesicles from the rectum?

Retrovesicle pouch

3

Epithelium of the seminal vesicles?

Pseudostratified columnar

4

Which structures are derived from the mesonephric ducts?

SEED
Seminal vesicles
Epididymis
Ejaculatory ducts
Ductus deferens

5

What do the seminal vesicles produce?

Make up 70% of the total volume of semen

Alkaline fluid: neutralises the acidity of the urethra and vagina to facilitate survival of spermatozoa

Prostaglandins: suppress female immune response to foreign semen

Clotting factors: keep semen in female repro tract post-ejaculation

6

Vasculature of the seminal vesicles?

Arteries to seminal gland, derived from the inferior vesicle, internal pudendal artery, middle rectal arteries
All from internal iliac artery

7

Autonomic innervation of the seminal vesicles?

Sympathetic

8

Lymphatic drainage of the seminal vesicles?

External and internal iliac lymph nodes

9

What clinical problem can you get with seminal vesicles?

Abscess formation which can allow pus to enter the peritoneal cavity in the event of rupture
Swollen glands felt through DRE

10

How can seminal vesicles be examined/checked?

Felt most easily through DRE, especially with a full bladder
Palpability can allow glands to be massaged to release their secretions - collect d and used for microscopy of certain STOs eg gonorrhoea

11

Function of the prostate gland?

Secretes proteolytic enzymes into the semen which breakdown clotting factors in the ejaculate
Allows the semen to stay fluid and move through female repro tract

12

Location of the prostate?

Inferior to neck of the bladder and superiorly to external urethral sphincter
Levator ani muscle lies inferolaterally to it
Posterior to the prostate is the ampulla of the rectum - therefore have a DRE to examine it

13

Path of the proteolytic enzymes produced by the prostate?

Exit via prostatic ducts into prostatic portion of the urethra
Secreted into semen immediately before ejaculation

14

What divides the prostate into lobes and what is each called?

Urethra and ejaculatory ducts
Inferoposterior
Superomedial
Anteromedial

15

PICTURE What are the clinical divisions of the prostate?

Central zone - surround ejaculatory ducts, embryo logically derived from Wolffian duct

Transitional zone - central, surround the urethra, embryology ally derived from urogenital sinus

Peripheral zone - makes up the main body of the gland and located posteriorly, embryologically from UG sinus

Fibromuscular stroma - situated anteriorly, merges with the tissue of the urogenital diaphragm

16

Vascular supply of the prostate?

Prostatic arteries from internal iliac arteries
Internal pudendal and middle rectal arteries

Prostatic venous plexus into internal iliac veins
Batson venous plexus to internal vertebral venous plexus

17

Innervation of the prostate?

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory
From inferior hypogastric plexus
Smooth muscle innervated by sympathetic fibres in ejaculation (point and shoot)

18

What is benign prostatic hyperplasia? (BPH)

Increase in size of the prostate without malignancy, more common with age
Usually due to enlargement of the transitional zone

19

Symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma?

Compresses bladder and urethra causing urinary frequency, urgency and difficulty initiating urination

20

In prostatic carcinoma, where do malignant cells usually arise from?

The peripheral zones

21

What is found on a DRE with prostatic carcinoma?

Hard irregular gland

22

How do metastases spread in prostatic carcinoma?

Via Batson venous plexus to vertebral bodies

23

What type of glands are the seminal vesicles?

Tubular

24

Where are the bulbourethral glands located?

Pea shaped exocrine glands
Posterolateral to membranous urethra
Enclosed within fibres of external urethral sphincter and superior to bulb of penis

25

Purpose of the bulbourethral glands?

Produce a lubricating mucus secretion - alkaline

26

Where do the ducts of the bulbourethral gland go?

Pierce the perineal membrane alongside the membranous urethra
Open into the proximal portion of the spongy urethra

27

Why type of glands are the bulbourethral glands?

Compound tubule-alveolar glands with columnar epithelium

28

Where are the bulbourethral glands derived from?

Urogenital sinus

29

Vasculature of the bulbourethral glands?

Derived from arteries to the bulb of the penis

30

Innervation of the bulbourethral glands?

Sympathetic - prostatic plexus

31

Lymphatic drainage of bulbourethral glands?

Internal and external iliac lymph nodes