Flashcards in Glands Of Males Deck (31):
Where are the seminal vesicles located?
Between bladder fundus and rectum
What separates the seminal vesicles from the rectum?
Epithelium of the seminal vesicles?
Which structures are derived from the mesonephric ducts?
What do the seminal vesicles produce?
Make up 70% of the total volume of semen
Alkaline fluid: neutralises the acidity of the urethra and vagina to facilitate survival of spermatozoa
Prostaglandins: suppress female immune response to foreign semen
Clotting factors: keep semen in female repro tract post-ejaculation
Vasculature of the seminal vesicles?
Arteries to seminal gland, derived from the inferior vesicle, internal pudendal artery, middle rectal arteries
All from internal iliac artery
Autonomic innervation of the seminal vesicles?
Lymphatic drainage of the seminal vesicles?
External and internal iliac lymph nodes
What clinical problem can you get with seminal vesicles?
Abscess formation which can allow pus to enter the peritoneal cavity in the event of rupture
Swollen glands felt through DRE
How can seminal vesicles be examined/checked?
Felt most easily through DRE, especially with a full bladder
Palpability can allow glands to be massaged to release their secretions - collect d and used for microscopy of certain STOs eg gonorrhoea
Function of the prostate gland?
Secretes proteolytic enzymes into the semen which breakdown clotting factors in the ejaculate
Allows the semen to stay fluid and move through female repro tract
Location of the prostate?
Inferior to neck of the bladder and superiorly to external urethral sphincter
Levator ani muscle lies inferolaterally to it
Posterior to the prostate is the ampulla of the rectum - therefore have a DRE to examine it
Path of the proteolytic enzymes produced by the prostate?
Exit via prostatic ducts into prostatic portion of the urethra
Secreted into semen immediately before ejaculation
What divides the prostate into lobes and what is each called?
Urethra and ejaculatory ducts
PICTURE What are the clinical divisions of the prostate?
Central zone - surround ejaculatory ducts, embryo logically derived from Wolffian duct
Transitional zone - central, surround the urethra, embryology ally derived from urogenital sinus
Peripheral zone - makes up the main body of the gland and located posteriorly, embryologically from UG sinus
Fibromuscular stroma - situated anteriorly, merges with the tissue of the urogenital diaphragm
Vascular supply of the prostate?
Prostatic arteries from internal iliac arteries
Internal pudendal and middle rectal arteries
Prostatic venous plexus into internal iliac veins
Batson venous plexus to internal vertebral venous plexus
Innervation of the prostate?
Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory
From inferior hypogastric plexus
Smooth muscle innervated by sympathetic fibres in ejaculation (point and shoot)
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia? (BPH)
Increase in size of the prostate without malignancy, more common with age
Usually due to enlargement of the transitional zone
Symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma?
Compresses bladder and urethra causing urinary frequency, urgency and difficulty initiating urination
In prostatic carcinoma, where do malignant cells usually arise from?
The peripheral zones
What is found on a DRE with prostatic carcinoma?
Hard irregular gland
How do metastases spread in prostatic carcinoma?
Via Batson venous plexus to vertebral bodies
What type of glands are the seminal vesicles?
Where are the bulbourethral glands located?
Pea shaped exocrine glands
Posterolateral to membranous urethra
Enclosed within fibres of external urethral sphincter and superior to bulb of penis
Purpose of the bulbourethral glands?
Produce a lubricating mucus secretion - alkaline
Where do the ducts of the bulbourethral gland go?
Pierce the perineal membrane alongside the membranous urethra
Open into the proximal portion of the spongy urethra
Why type of glands are the bulbourethral glands?
Compound tubule-alveolar glands with columnar epithelium
Where are the bulbourethral glands derived from?
Vasculature of the bulbourethral glands?
Derived from arteries to the bulb of the penis
Innervation of the bulbourethral glands?
Sympathetic - prostatic plexus