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YR3: Opthalmology > Glaucoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaucoma Deck (13)
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1

What is Glaucoma?

Optic neuropathy with typical field defect usually associated with ocular HTN (intra-ocular pressure > 21 mm Hg)
1/6 pts have normal IOP

2

Describe the aetiology of glaucoma

POAG: angle between iris + cornea is open but trabecular meshwork drainage system slowly gets clogged over time by blood or inflammatory cells.
ACAG: angle is too small due to the lens being pushed against the iris.
Over time, this causes ocular HTN which causes compression + stretching of the retinal nerve fibres.
Leads to scotomas (partial loss of vision) + visual field defects.

3

List the primary causes of glaucoma

Acute closed-angle glaucoma (ACAG)
Chronic closed-angle glaucoma
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)

4

List 5 secondary causes of glaucoma

Trauma
Uveitis
Steroids
Rubeosis iridis (formation of new blood vessels on surface of the iris)
Congenital: Buphthalmos (enlargement of eye balls)

5

Describe the epidemiology of glaucoma

1% in > 40 yrs
10% in >80 yrs
3rd most common cause of blindness worldwide

6

List 5 symptoms of Acute closed-angle glaucoma (ACAG)

Painful red eye
Impaired vision
Halo's seen around lights
N+V
Headache

7

What are the symptoms of Primary open-angle glaucoma?

Usually ASYMPTOMATIC
Peripheral visual field loss

8

List 8 signs of Acute closed-angle glaucoma (ACAG)

Red eye
Hazy cornea
Loss of red reflex
Fixed + dilated pupil
Eye is tender + hard on palpation
Cupped optic disc
Visual field defect
Moderated raised intra-ocular pressure

9

Describe signs of Primary open-angle glaucoma

Optic disc may be cupped
Usually NO signs

10

List 5 investigations that may be used in glaucoma

Gonioscopy: Assess iridocorneal angle
Goldmann Applanation Tonometry: intra-ocular pressure
Pachymetry: central corneal thickness (CCT)
Fundoscopy: cupped optic disc
Perimetry (Visual Field Testing)

11

List 4 risk factors for glaucoma

Female
Far-sighted (hyperopia)
Increased age
Shallow peripheral anterior chamber

12

Describe the normal production and passage of aqueous humour

Aqueous humor secreted by ciliary epithelium into the posterior chamber.
From here, flows in to a narrow space between front of lens + back of iris, to enter the anterior chamber.
From here, it flows out via the trabecular meshwork + through the canal of Schlemm to enter the aqueous vein.

13

Give 2 symptoms of congenital bupthalmos glaucoma

Watering
Cloudy cornea