Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 PaSS > Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs Deck (24)
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What is Population science?

Study of People and Populations


What are the 3 Causes and 3 Consequences


Epidemiology: Study of disease in populations
Demography: Study of size and shape of populations
Statistics: Study of data in numerical form


Public Health
Health Promotion
Disease Prevention


Define Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states, and the application of this study to the control of health problems


What are the 4 stages of the Demographic Transition Model

What are their characteristics in terms of birth/death rates and pop. Growth

1: Pre-Transition
- High birth rates, High fluctuating death rates
- Low population Growth

2: Early Transition
- Birth rate stays high, Death rate begins to fall
- Rapid Population growth

3: Late Transition
- Birth rate starts declining
- Population growth slows down

4: Post-Transition
- Low Birth, Death rates
- Negligible population growth


What factors affect Population Health?
Name 3 of these

Socio-Demographic factors

- Demographic Transition
- Economic Transition
- Behavioural and Lifestyle factors


What factors affect Burden of Disease, Disability and Ageing
Name 3 of these

Population Factors

- Age sex specific rates
- Population size
- Population shape


What do we use to make inferences about populations

What 3 things should this be, with respect to the population


- Unbiased
- Precise
- Representative


What are the 3 Global Determinants of Health

Global Warming
Socio-Demographic Factors
Population Factors


Define Evidence Based Medicine

Conscientious, Judicious and Explicit use of Current Best Evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients


What 3 things influence choosing the appropriate treatment for a patient

Clinical experience on the condition
External evidence
Patient’s concerns/ values


Compare the processes in Deductive and Empirical approaches

Identify the basic processes
Deduce the best procedures
Apply to clinical situation

Identify the basic processes
Postulate alternative procedures
Experimentally test ideas


What’re 2 types of studies

Quantitative- Observational and Experimental


What are the 2 best methods of obtaining evidence

Systematic review of random trials
Randomised control trials


Name 2 Epidemiological Study Design
Compare their sub-studies

- Cohort studies—> Analysis can be rate OR odds ratio
- Case control study—> Analysis can ONLY be odds ratio

- Ecological study—> Unit of analysis is groups
- Cross sectional study—> Unit of analysis is individuals


Compare Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology

Descriptive: Sampling to infer back to population
Rarely achieve a perfect sample

Analytical: To compare “like for like” samples
Rarely achieve “like for like’ samples


How does an Ecological study work?

How is one conducted

- Count cases by groups

- Identify groups to study
Define characteristics to be studied (Exposure and Outcome)

Decide whether analysis involves counting categorical (Nominal/ Ordinal-Order matters-) OR measuring continuous data

Gather data on group level characteristics


What are 4 issues with Ecological Studies

- Defining characteristics
- Variation in measurement
- Chance (Random Error)
- Ecological Fallacy (Confounding): Falsely inferring individual-level association from group level association


How does a Cross-Sectional Study work?

How is one conducted?

Count cases

Who do you want to generalise to- Theoretical Population
What population can you access- Study Population
Who do you want in your study- Sampling Frame
Who is in your study- The Sample


What are 3 issues with Cross-Sectional studies

- Chance
- Responder/ participant bias
- Sampling bias


How is a Case-Control study conducted

Find cases who have the outcome
Find controls (Non-cases) who have the outcome

Compare levels of exposure between Cases and Controls


What are 4 issues with Case-Control studies

- Chance
- Confounding
- Selection bias
- Information bias


Compare the 2 types of Cohort Study

Concurrent/ Prospective- Collect data at a current point in time
Historical/ Prospective- Go back in time to collect data


How is a Cohort study conducted

Identify outcome-free individuals
Group individuals according to level of exposure
Compare exposure rates for each group


What are 4 issues with a Cohort Study?

- Confounding
- Chance
- Information Bias
- Loss to follow-up (People may drop out of study)