Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 PaSS > Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Global Determinants Of Health, Intro to Epidemiological Study Designs Deck (24)
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1

What is Population science?

Study of People and Populations

2

What are the 3 Causes and 3 Consequences

Causes:

Epidemiology: Study of disease in populations
Demography: Study of size and shape of populations
Statistics: Study of data in numerical form

Consequences:

Public Health
Health Promotion
Disease Prevention

3

Define Epidemiology

The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states, and the application of this study to the control of health problems

4

What are the 4 stages of the Demographic Transition Model

What are their characteristics in terms of birth/death rates and pop. Growth

1: Pre-Transition
- High birth rates, High fluctuating death rates
- Low population Growth

2: Early Transition
- Birth rate stays high, Death rate begins to fall
- Rapid Population growth

3: Late Transition
- Birth rate starts declining
- Population growth slows down

4: Post-Transition
- Low Birth, Death rates
- Negligible population growth

5

What factors affect Population Health?
Name 3 of these

Socio-Demographic factors

- Demographic Transition
- Economic Transition
- Behavioural and Lifestyle factors

6

What factors affect Burden of Disease, Disability and Ageing
Name 3 of these

Population Factors

- Age sex specific rates
- Population size
- Population shape

7

What do we use to make inferences about populations

What 3 things should this be, with respect to the population

Samples

- Unbiased
- Precise
- Representative

8

What are the 3 Global Determinants of Health

Global Warming
Socio-Demographic Factors
Population Factors

9

Define Evidence Based Medicine

Conscientious, Judicious and Explicit use of Current Best Evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients

10

What 3 things influence choosing the appropriate treatment for a patient

Clinical experience on the condition
External evidence
Patient’s concerns/ values

11

Compare the processes in Deductive and Empirical approaches

Deductive:
Identify the basic processes
Deduce the best procedures
Apply to clinical situation

Empirical:
Identify the basic processes
Postulate alternative procedures
Experimentally test ideas

12

What’re 2 types of studies

Qualitative
Quantitative- Observational and Experimental

13

What are the 2 best methods of obtaining evidence

Systematic review of random trials
Then
Randomised control trials

14

Name 2 Epidemiological Study Design
Compare their sub-studies

Analytical:
- Cohort studies—> Analysis can be rate OR odds ratio
- Case control study—> Analysis can ONLY be odds ratio

Descriptive:
- Ecological study—> Unit of analysis is groups
- Cross sectional study—> Unit of analysis is individuals

15

Compare Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology

Descriptive: Sampling to infer back to population
Rarely achieve a perfect sample

Analytical: To compare “like for like” samples
Rarely achieve “like for like’ samples

16

How does an Ecological study work?

How is one conducted

- Count cases by groups

- Identify groups to study
Define characteristics to be studied (Exposure and Outcome)

Decide whether analysis involves counting categorical (Nominal/ Ordinal-Order matters-) OR measuring continuous data

Gather data on group level characteristics

17

What are 4 issues with Ecological Studies

- Defining characteristics
- Variation in measurement
- Chance (Random Error)
- Ecological Fallacy (Confounding): Falsely inferring individual-level association from group level association

18

How does a Cross-Sectional Study work?

How is one conducted?

Count cases

Who do you want to generalise to- Theoretical Population
What population can you access- Study Population
Who do you want in your study- Sampling Frame
Who is in your study- The Sample

19

What are 3 issues with Cross-Sectional studies

- Chance
- Responder/ participant bias
- Sampling bias

20

How is a Case-Control study conducted

Find cases who have the outcome
Find controls (Non-cases) who have the outcome

Compare levels of exposure between Cases and Controls

21

What are 4 issues with Case-Control studies

- Chance
- Confounding
- Selection bias
- Information bias

22

Compare the 2 types of Cohort Study

Concurrent/ Prospective- Collect data at a current point in time
Historical/ Prospective- Go back in time to collect data

23

How is a Cohort study conducted

Identify outcome-free individuals
Group individuals according to level of exposure
Compare exposure rates for each group

24

What are 4 issues with a Cohort Study?

- Confounding
- Chance
- Information Bias
- Loss to follow-up (People may drop out of study)