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Flashcards in Global Interdependence Deck (187):

What is long term or development aid?

It involves providing local communities with education and skills forsusitainable development

Through governments or organisations such as Practical Action


what aims do fair trade have for producers in LEDCs

better trading conditions
fewer middle men

better financial outcomes
higher percentage of price received

securing rights

developing knowledge and skills to improve their lives


describe the consolidation stage of butlers model

former agricultural land is take over for hotel and other tourist developments

beaches and other areas become reserved for tourist use only

local resentment at this development may increase and the growth rate may decelerate


how do the rise in incomes lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

More incomes gives poeple after they have paid for their basic needs
Disposable money that they could spend on lesiure activities and tourism


what is tied aid

when one country donates money or resources to another but with conditions attached

These conditions may be viewers as being in the HICs favour

eg Pergau Dam Malaysia 1991
£234 million in aid towards the construction of a hydroelectric dam to describe trade deals with Malaysia


how is the hideaway resort sustainable in terms of infrastructure

air conditioning rarely used
high roof cottages
encourages cool flooding area via open shutters


example of a health care external shock

SARS in 2003
China Hong Kong Vietnam

777 deaths in 36 countries
hotel occupancy down 70%


example of environmental impact of tourism (aesthetic pollution)

lack of land use planning and building regulation

sprawling development

costa del sol

implications for sea turtle nesting


identify circumstances were he carrying capacity of tourism might be exceeds?

peak season, public holidays, weekends

special events, media attention eg fashion week

lack of regulation or control


describe bilateral aid

from one government to another

usually largest share of a country’s aid

often directed according to strategic political considerations as well as humanitarian reasons


what is a visible import or export

A good or product traded and flows into or out of s country

Visible in the way it can be touch or seen eg cereal, wheat or machinery


how are water shortages an economic disadvantage of tourism?

caused by tohrist complexes
hotels and golf courses using large amounts

up to 500 litres per tourist per day

may lead to local farms and villages not having enough


what are the overall problems with aid?

undermining local employment structures
delaying governments getting to grips with the economy
inappropriate large scale schemes
possible corruption etc


explain how carrying capacity is linked to the life cycle model of tourism?

maximum capacity without deterioration is reached in stagnation

after this point the resort has decisions to make regarding future development or decline

in earlier stages the resort is able to expand acidified and area to cope with rising numbers such that visitor experienve is by affected


explain how locational advantage affects global trade

it is advantageous for an exporting country to be close to the market for id products (a proximity advantage leading to reduced transport cost)
eg tourism in france benefits from large populations of neighbouring countries

strategic location gives advantage to trade
eg singapore along main trade route between indian and pacific oceans


explain how the WTO works?

they are empowered by the organisation to enforce its decisions by imposing trade sanctions against countries that have breached the rules

highest body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference; meets every 2 year setting for negotiating global trade deals known as trade rounds (aimed at reducing barriers of free trade)


describe the decline stage of butlers model

a location becomes rundown damaged or no longer fashionable


describe multilateral aid

assistance provided by governments to international organisations

eg world bank, or UN

then used to reduce poverty in developing nations


what are the effects of out of season tourism on the host country?

hotels low occupancy or temporarily closed
low revenue
shops closed services unavailable
opportunities to do repairs


arguments against the provision of aid to LICs?

aid can increase dependency on donor counties where aid is not a gift but a loan; may struggle to repay

corruption may lead to local politicians using aid for their own means or for political gain; it may not reach the people and communities it was aimed at

tied aid can be used to put political or economic pressure on the receiving country
it may be a condition of the air that the projects are run by foreign companies or that a proportion of the resources or profits produced will be sent abroad

some aid projects do not benefit smaller communities and some development projects may lead to increased costs of basic food and water


quote about the advantages of developmental aid

give a man a fish
you have fed him for today
teach a man to fish you have fed him for a lifetime


example of a terrorism external shock

2015 tunisia mass shooting, 38 killed

in 2016 completely cancelled Tunisia program on Thompson

90% drop i. British tourists


how does the increased promotion through media coverage lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

The internet

different holiday destinations and types of holiday


what are the general economic disadvantages of tourism?

seasonal unemployment
over dependent on tourism
water shortages
low paid and low skilled jobs


how is seasonal unemployment an economic disadvantage of tourism?

if people come for summer sun or winter skiing
the rest of the year may mean fre or no tourists
therefore little or no employment

tropical wet seasons and monsoons discourage tourists at certain times of the year


what are the causes of debt?

trade imbalance - value of imports is greater than the value of exports over a period of time; currency devaluation or foreign exchange issues

rising price of key imported commodities eg the oil crisis of 1973 and subsequent rises the price of oil since that time

an inability to make repayments on international loans eg Argentina being unable to repay the international monetary fund

poor financial decision making by a government due to inappropriate lending and borrowing in the 60s/70s and excessive interest charges being imposed by creditors

following independence many former colonies were given large loans to develop their infrastructure and internal industries that replace imports

financial mismanagmrnt of the economy can lead to high levels of military spending


what social and political problems does national debt create?

social: divert resources away from social provisions
most affected poor especially women and children
cut in benefit
raised pension age

political: government instability
public unrest: austerity measures
structural adjustment programs


what are the main benefits of the WTO?

expanding world trade helps raise global living standards

democratic inthst it’s rules were written by its member states many of whom are democracies who also select its leadership


how does Majorca fit the consolidation stage of butlers model?

1980s arrivals rose to 7.5 million
up to 70% population employed which dominated economy

blighted the landscape
resentful tourists


what is multilateral aid

given by a donor country to the international organisation

such as the World Bank who then used the aid to assist developing countries


example of environmental impact of tourism (waste)

wider caribbean

63,000 port calls generate 82,000 tons of garbage

4x per person the amount of people in onshore countries

peru toilet paper trail (inability to transport)


how is multiplier effect an economic advantage of tourism?

it can encourage other developments to take place in an area


what is developmental aid?

support for developing economic environmental social or political aspects of a country

addresses underlying socio economic causes
which may lead to crisis or emergency

usually financial
could be advice or trained personnel

large agencies governments charities



social and cultural advantages?

an increased understanding of different people’s cultural and customs

increased cultural links with other countries

increased foreign language skills for both visitors and hosts

increased social and recreational facilities for local people

the preservation of traditional heritage sites and customs


supply reasons for growth of tourism

5.8% GDP invested in infrastructure
2,000kn of new highways
metro in Hanoi
Vietnam railways 300 kph Hanoi to Saigon
Diversifying economy eg NasaWorld casino built on the Mekong Delta


negative aspects of trade

dependency on primary products
fluctuating market prices
product innovation
unforeseen events eg climate hazards


positive impacts of vietnam tourism

increased international standing
WTO 2002

move through DTM
2006 ($2.4bn income) 4% of GDP

greater cultural protection eg Hue Citadel
minority cultures promoted eg Cham
improved entrepreneurship eg tour or taxi
infrastructure improved eg new roads or water

new national parks eg Cat Tiem NP
protection of Javan Rhino


what are the socio cultural components of carrying capacity?

levels of tolerance of the host community
sense of identity
nature of visitors
availability of suitable man power


what is relief aid

short term
saves lives
reduced suffering

free variety of sources

governments and Ngos


how can tohrist destinations attempt to manage seasonal demand?

conference trade
buisness tourism

special theme event holidays

special deals

advertising in other parts of the world with different holiday patterns or periods

eg winter sun in new zealand


how does increased mobility lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

A result of private car ownership, improved roads; a decrease in the cost of air travel and the expansion of budget airlines like Ryanair

More flights to more places ban ever before

In 1970 there were 307 million airline passengers
By 3016 this is 3.6 billion



The institution of policies (tariff quotas regulations) that protect a country’s industries against competition from cheap imports


demand reasons for the growth in tourism

attractive exchange rate
rich cultural diversity

eg Halong Bay, UNESCO heritage site
2012 5.5 million visits one of the 7 wonders

Mekong delta sees traditional ways of life

Cu Chi Tunnels used by vietcong in war, niche war tourism


how does Majorca fit the stagnation stage of butlers model?


unemployment rose to 30%
bars and cafes closed as older resorts appear rundown

magaluf gains a poor reputation


political reasons for vietnam’s tourism

deregulation decreased
private ownership increased eg boastmen on the Mekong
IR is less aggressive joined the WTO
relaxed immigration


example of fair trade operating with TNC

supermarkets and tncs such as cadbury’s
give fair trade farmers access to global markets


describe the rejuvenation stage of butlers model

this may occur if a place becomes rebranded or circumstances fhange to make a place popular once more

usually involves investment


demand factors for the growth of international tourism?

numbers eg rising middle class in China/retired populations


What is sustainable tourism?

Organised in such a way that its level can be sustained in the future without creating irreparable environmental, social and economic damage to the recieving area


what are the environmental disadvantages of tourism?

footpath erosion
destruction of wildlife habitats
disturbance to animal behaviour
beach degradation
damage to coral reefs


factors influencing growth and development of a tourist area


local people
gov policy


role of the WTO

deals with global rules of trade between countries and trade blocs

functions to ensure trade runs smoothly predictably and freely

achieved this by negotiating trade agreements, encouraging liberalisation (LEDCS) and by dealing with trade disputes


example of environmental impact of tourism (water resources)

average golf course needs 1500kg of fertilisers pesticides and herbicides per year

as much water as 60,000 rural villagers



how many member countries does the WTO have

153 in 2008


what is Charitable aid

Funded by donations from the public through organisations often NGOs

Some will raise money to use for the aid programme others are more involved with the management of air projects, ensuring that aid is effectively used and distributed


what are the effects of peak season tourism on the host country?

beds taken
at or beyond carrying capacity
stress or conflict for tourists and local people



form of sustainable tourism
features the environment and or ecosystem

it aims to do threee things to protect the environment sustain enhance and empower local communities
benefit the destination economically minimising leakage


what is the nature of Fair Trade

the payment of higher price to exporters as well as production meeting higher social and environmental standards

the main focus is on exports from LEDCs to MEDCs such as coffee cocoa sugar tea bananas honey cotton flowers


why are HICs arguably not to blame for odious debt?

the figurehead of the country
mobutu has the right to the money
choice how to spend it

problematic to assert blame to Hics
although politically motivated
prevented brutish soviet regime from gaining valuable resources
likely worse than mobutu


Trade surplus

When the value of a country’s exports exceeds the value of its imports


What is debt relief?

A cancellation of debts owed by developing nations to industrialised nations or institutions such as the World Bank

This is done in order to allow the government to shift funds towards social development


What is microcredit?

Involved tiny pond and financial services to help the poor - mostly women - start business and escape poverty


Trade deficit

When the value of a country’s imports exceeds the value of its exports


how does locational advantage affect trade?

strategic situation
eg in relation to the worlds shipping lanes
or access to major markets eg US or China

locational disadvantage
landlocked counties
remote islands

transport technology


what are the environmental advantages of tourism?

environmental protection and the conservation and preservation of wildlife due to:

the use of revenues from tourism to enhance and manage environments
use of green taxes from tourism contributed to the protection and management of environment

environmental education - raised awareness of the importance of local and industrial environment

conservation of heritage eg ancient sites, old sites, old buildings, urban heritage, old industrial sites for visits

tree planting, landscaping improves the aesthetics of the area

water supply schemes


describe the development stage of butlers model

sees inward investment into th area and tourism becomes a discrete important business activity

companies and individual come into the area and start to take control, manage and organise the tourism industry creating package holidays

local involvement diminished


reasons why trade is unequal globally

historical factors - colonialism

nature of development

resource endowment

nature of economy (primary or tertiary)

political stability

trade agreements

tariff in operation

demand and supply or market competition



Economic factors affecting tourism

Steady rising incomes (tourism grows 1.3 times faster than GDP)

The decreasing real cost of holidays

The widening range of destinations within the middle income range

The heavy marketing of shorter foreign holidays aimed a those who have the time and disposable income to take an extra break

The expansion of budget airlines

Air miles and other retail reward schemes aimed at travel and tourism

Globalisation has increased business travel

Periods of economic recession reduce tourism levels considerably


explain how historical factors affect global trade

the poorest countries in the world are former colonies of european countries

they established colonies to supply their raw materials cheaply
these raw materials used to develop the colonisers manufacturing industry

also provided a large captive market, goods and products sold at a high cost bsck to the colony

this is seen today in the colonial legacy of crops or minerals, tied to HICs


demand factors for the growth of international tourism?

numbers eg rising middle class in China/retired populations


Trade dependency

When a developing country is so reliant on its advanced trading partner that any changes in their economic policy or economic condition could have a severe effect on the developing country’s economy


describe LIC employment structure

heavily dependent on agriculture and subsistence farming


very few high paid jobs

limited tertiary jobs in teaching and nursing

primary product depends makes them very vulnerable to world market


describe failed bilateral aid

peragu dam

top down tied aid

thatcher committed 234 million to build dam
despite being found not cost effective by ODA
received arms deal worth £1.3 billion


what is dumping

the selling by s country of large quantities of a good in another country, at w price lower than the production cost, or at a price significantly below the price in the domestic market


example of a colonial trade relationship?

the caribbean islands large plantations were established to grow sugar or bananas for sale in france or britain


why do patterns of global trade change

emergence of NICs
Liberalisation and growing role of supply chains
changing trade barriers
action of trade blocs and agreement s
technology led decreases in transport and communication costs


what are the most common trade agreements

free trade agreements which reduce or eliminate tariffs quotas and other trade restrictions in


what is a quota

an import barrier that sets a physical limit on the quantity or value of goods that may be imported into a country


Arguments against the provision of aid to LIC/MIC?

Aid can increase dependency of countries on donor countries where aid is not w gift but a loan
they may struggle to repay

Corruption may lead to local politicians using aid for their own means or for political gain; it may not reach the people and communities it was aimed at

Tied air can be used to put pressure on the country; a condition of the air could be that projects are run by foreign companies or that a proportion of the resources or profis are produced will be sent abroad


describe HIC employment structure

eg UK between 1840 and 2011 employment went up 60% in quaternary areas

post industrial societies

very few manufacturing
mostly quaternary

cheap LIC and MIC for secondary
robotics replace human labour in manufacturing


invisible trade

transactions that occur across borders or between countries for services that can’t be seen or touched

eg payments for services such as tourism or education, remittances, financial transfers beteeen companies


what is protectionism

when a trading nation introduced policies that aim to restrict the flow of imports into a. country and or create an artificial advantage to exporting firms


arguments for the provision of aid to LICs?

emergency aid can save lives and help rebuild communities livelihoods and housing

provision of medical training medicines and equipment can improve health and standards of living

aid for agriculture can help improve farming techniques increase food production and improve the quality and quantity of food available

developing clean water and sanitation to improve health and living standards

aid for industrial development can create employment and improve infrastructure in transport such as roads and railways
supporting countries in developing their natural resources and power supplies


explain how resource endowment affects global trade

countries with large reserves of raw materials (iron coal oil)
giving them the potential to establish industries and develop their economies

these materials are needed for industry transport and energy production

this is further enhanced combined with access to labour markets capital transport and trade agreements

this explains the wealth of Australia (exports of iron ore and coal to China)


how does the WTO encourage trade?

lowering trade barriers

discouraging unfair practises - export subsidies or dumping products cheaply to gain market share

LEDCs get advice, time to adjust and some privileges


reasons for the decline in popularity of sun sea sand tourism?

boredom with traditional holidays and search for new experience

advertising of alternatives and media

changes in fashion

deterioration of facilities and costal environments

concern for responsible or sustainable tourism


what are the advantages of trade over aid?

Compared on the other hand with the argument that trade (free fair or regulated) may promote economic independence, provide income, support local employment and be more appropriate


reasons for the increasing popularity of ecotourism?

a search for new experiences and environments

effective promotion or media coverage

the increasing unattractiveness of more traditional forms of tourism
eg mass tourism


increased interest in environmentally friendly or green activities

lowering costs of ecotourism per person as supply increases


example of environmental impact of tourism (sound pollution)

yellowstone national park

snowmobiles can be heard 100% of the time during the daytime period

change in animal activity patterns


What is carrying capacity

A destination is the number of tourists a destination can take without placing too much pressure in local resources and infrastructure


define trade agreement

a tax tariff and trade treaty between countries


describe MIC employment structure


rise in manufacturing
FDI from TNCs

or tertiary rise eg india

domestic companies develop
greater agricultural investment


how is the hideaway resort socially sustainable

traditional bures
local choir
welcome lava ceremony
high roofed wood straw Fijian cottages

95% of staff are Fijian, income st improved secure electricity and modern school building
increase in young people staying in local area


What is international aid?

The giving of resources
food money goods technology
By one country or organisation to another, poorer country
Objective is to improve the economy and quality of life in the poorer country


reasons for the increasing popularity of ecotourism

new experiences and environments
effective media coverage
increased interest in evenironmentally friendly activity
unattractiveness of tradiicstional tourism - life cycle model, mass tourism
lowering cost of ecotourism per person as supply increases


describe the exploration stage of butlers model

exploration stage

when a small number of tourists are attracted by a new location at a minimal impact on the local community

there are no services or facilities developed specificslly for tourists


how does increased international migration lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

encouraging more people to visit relatives and friends abroad


Social factors affecting global tourism

An increase in the average number of days of paid leave

An increasing desire to experience different cultures and landscapes

High levels of international migration over the last decade or so means that more people have friends and relatives abroad

More people are avoiding certain destinations for ethical reasons d

Raised expectations of international travel with increasing media coverage of holidays travel and nature


social factors that explain the rise of niche tourism?

changes in fashion
search for new experiences
greater environmental awareness
health and fitness boom
boredom with old destinations
media influence; peer group activity and tales
age/sex profile of population and poeple having more and longer holidays


example of a natural processes external shock

maldives destroyed by 2085

vulnerable to surge flooding and warming seas

70% increased erosion on the beaches


Cultural impact of tourism

The loss of locally owned land
The abandonment of traditional values and practices
Displacement of people to make way for tourist developments
Alcoholism and drug abuse
Abuse of human rights by governments and companies in the quest to maximise profits
Crime and prostitution involved children
Visitor congestion at key locations hindering the movement of local people
Denying local people access to beaches to provide exclusivity for visitors
The loss of housing for local people as more visitors by second homes in tourist areas


what are the difficulties of managing tourist destinations

carrying capacity
profit motivation
market trends
demand and supply
hazards and terrorism
issues of culture
media and advertising

balancing the needs of eg local residents and tourists
meeting the requirements of foreign owned tour operators


explain how trade agreements affect global trade

the level of economic integration depends on the specific type of trade policies adopted by the trade blocs

typically the benefits and obligations of the trade agreements apply only to their signatories


negative impacts of vietnam’s tourism

80% of international tourists arrive by air
coast erosion at Hoi An

seasonable employment (notable wet or dry season)
inflation due to foreign investment eg Hyett

westernisation (language food cultural)
rural urban migration
privatisation (gov owned land sold off)


social and cultural disadvantages of tourism?

demonstration effect - local people may copy the actions of some tourists in terms of dress diets habits and alcohol (traditional values abandoned)

increase in prostitution and development of sex tourism

young people may drop out from school to work in the informal tourist industry and earn money as unofficial guides or selling souvenirs

people may be moved from their houses and land to make way for tourist development

local landowners may sell large areas of land and coastline to non local or foreign buyers who may then deny access to local people


benefits of high employment in tourism on the economy

direct and indirect employment
increased income - multiplier effect
taxation revenue increase


example of sustainable tourist resorts

Hideaway Redort

located on coconut plantation
words second largest coral reef
village owns hotels land and reef


What is ecotourism?

A specialised form of tourism where people experience relatively untouched natural environments such as

coral reefs, tropical forests, remote mountain areas

ensure that their presence does not further damage to these environments


opposition to the WTO?

WTO is too powerful, it can effect compel sovereign stated to change laws and regulations by declaring these to be in violation of free trade rules

The WTO aid indifferent to the impact of free trade on workers rights child labour the environment and health

Lacks democratic accountability in that its hearings on trade disputes are closed to the public and the media

Run by rich countries benefiting themselves and large TNC; this harms smaller countries which have less negotiating power. Less weight on problems of smaller countries

eg rich countries have not fully opened their markets to produce from poor countries


What is debt?

external debt - the total debt in a country owed to creditors outside the country

money owed to commercial banks, other governments or international financial institutions

debtors can be the government, corporations and private households


example of how standard of living is improved by fair trade

36% of profits improving productivity

CANN cooperative in the ivory coast

16% spent on farm improvements
19% on shared facilities


What is niche tourism?

Tourism that deals in a specialised product


example of LIC economy

Chad 80% employee in primary sector


what are the three functions of the WTO

Police free trade agreements
Settle trade disputes between governments
Organise trade negotiations


what advantage does fair trade have for consumers?

ethical satisfaction as fair trade campaigns for change

raised awareness about fair trade issues

achieved through fair trade


how does major sporting events lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?


winter and summer olympic games
world championship athletics
rugby and cricket world cups

all advertise tourist opportunities


describe relief aid

humanitarian aid

purpose is saving lives
reducing suffering
respecting human dignity

usually employed after events such as natural disasters or humanitarian crisis eg civil war or famine

short term



why are HICs to blame for odious debt?

immorally lending money
banks know of the irresponsibility of the leaders
eg apartheid in south african government, that would fund policing prisons or security apparatus enforcing racist “second class status”

not only irresponsible, politically motivated
eg mobutu the congo leader
squandered $8 billion in personal swiss banks, $2 million trip to disneyland, castles in spain
people are impoverished and suffering

politically didn’t want the DR Congo eg gold or dimaonds fallen into Soviet hands
HICs propped up a corrupt regime


Political factors affecting tourism

Many governments have invested heavily to encourage tourism

Government backing for major international events such as the Olympic Games and the World Cup

The perceived greater likelihood of terrorist attacks in certain destinations

Government restrictions on in and outbound tourism

Calls by non government organisations to boycott countries eg Burma


what advantages does fair trade have for producers?

better trading conditions eg removing middle men

better financial outcome eg higher proportion of final price, higher prices of Fairtradr verified

increased security of market and a more equitable balance between them and the supply chain

developing knowledge and skills to improve lives - empowerment

increased income and quality of life; especially small and medium scale producers


example of political uncertainty shocking the tourist industry?

tourists fear for safety

thailand riots
occupied airport 2006-10
hotel occupancy down to 20%
85% of your operators didn’t invest

BUT doesn’t neccesarily deter tourists

eg Cuba partial trade embargo, worsened IR under Trump
visitors up 12% annually
predicted future growth


describe the stagnation stage of butlers model

this may take place with further resentment at the development and the problems it is creating with a drop in tourist numbers


supply factors for the growth of international tourism?

resort development
tourism strategy
package holidays
niche tourism


what is bilateral aid

where the aid is given directly by the government of a donor country to a recipient country


how does Majorca fit the rejuvination stage of butlers model?

only high class hotels gained planning permsiion

2000s new airport terminal built

gardens and nature reserve opened to attract ecotourists

success; records nos of tourists - 2013, 9 million


problems of high employment in tourism on the economy

low wage rate
terms of employment that are exploitative of workers
issues of unemployment related to seasons or economic fluctuations
lower agriculture production locally
imbalances of regional development


economic factors for tourist consumers that explain the rise of niche tourism?

greater affluence and disposable income
greater proportion of their personal budget being spent on tourists
good deals from tour operators and favourable exchange rates


how does greater political freedom lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

since the breakup of the former USSR and changes in Chinese travel policies


why do countries find it difficult to get out of debt?

High interest rates on international loans
demands of a growing population with increasing aspirations
the dominance of cheaper primary exports in their export portfolio
changed of government
political corruption and economic instability
natural disasters eg floods
social issues eg pop growth poor infrastructure


how do the increased leisure time lead to the rapid growth in international tourism?

This is caused by a shorter working weak, flexitime, paid annual holidays, earlier retirement with pension

Several holidays may now be taken by people in one year


benefits of trade if free fair and regulated

may promote economic independence
provide income
support local employment


how is a growth in income an economic advantage of tourism

this has a national and local impact
it provides extra finance for new developments in infrastructure education and healthcare etc

both the tohrist industries and the employed workers will usually pay taxes to their governments which increase government income

this helps pay for major infrastructure developments eg healthcare education water and energetic supply
this may be used both by tourists and the local population


why is aid more effective in some countries than others?

of organisation


top down or bottom up (relief or developmental)
involvement of local gov and communities


explain how tied aid creates issues in donor countries?

political difficulties of justifying spending on aid to some groups

perceived perception that tied as is better for their country’s economy

eg china and india


what are the stages of Butlers Model



issues with dominance of tourism in a country



trends in tourism (unforeseen events, fashion)

impacts on local economy eg employment currency price leakage

social cultural impacts eg westernisation

tourism life cycles of stagnation and decline


how is informal sector an economic advantage of tourism?

increasing employment oppertunitird it can help reduce migration
especially from rural areas

this employment can be in small cafes, hotels, souvenir shops, tour guides, local taxied etc

informal sector prevents leakage


What is economic leakage?

the part of the month a tourist pays for a foreign holiday that does not benefit the destination country because it goes elsewhere

such as payments or foreign owners of hotels


facilitating factors for the growth of international tourism?

ease of obtaining visas


economic consequences of national debt?

interest added to debt makes it unsustainable

repayment prioritised over investment in infrastructure

rise in unemployment fall in wages

long term structural problems


describe tied aid

foreign aid that must be spent buying products from the donor country that provided the aid

eg Peragu Dam Malaysia 1991 in exchange for arms deal


supply factors for the growth of international tourism?

resort development
tourism strategy
package holidays
niche tourism


what reasons could explain a decline in tourist numbers

life cycle model, decline - area is run down no longer fashionable, no rejuvination

uncertain nature of the market




political instability


example of how fair trade has promoted training and skills

2013 west africa

financial training
negotiating contracts consumer awareness marketing advocacy campaigns on behalf of producers

CANN offer pesticides and kits eg wellington boots


what are the issues for the country recovering aid?

tied aid (agenda)
management, governance, corruption
problems of delivery


how is over dependence on tourism an economic disadvantage of tourism?

should a natural or human disaster to occur there is little alternative income

tunisia and egypt witnessed a dramatic fall in tourist numbers in 2011 and 2012 as a result of political changes and turmoil

terrorist activity has seen several foreign governments advise against travelling to these places


assess the impact of fair trade

enhanced income

however many producers in LEDC find it difficult to meet the standards required to gain and retain Fair Trade Status


visible trade

the exchange across borders (import and export) of goods which can be seen or touched

eg wheat coal vehicles


Fair trade

A movement that aims to creates a direct long term trading link with producers in developing countries

To ensure that they revive a guaranteed price for their products on favourable financial terms


how does Majorca fit the involvement and development stage of butlers model?

Locals gained jobs in construction hotels shops

farmland lost due to development

road congestion

no proper planning of roads hotels villas


advantages of developing tourism as ecotourism

protects the environment
offers a phased approach for investment
limits impact on local communities
gives potential visitors choice of activities and places to go


What is the multiplier effect?

when a new or expanding economic activity ina. region creates new employment and increased the amount of money circulating in that region

this attracts further development creating more employment services and wealth


what are the overall factors affecting global trade

resource endowment
historical factors
locational advantage
trade agreements


What is primary product dependence?

When countries rely on one or a small number of primary products for the bulk of their export earnings


What is tourism?

To travel away from the home environment
For leisure, recreation and holidays
To visit friends and relatives
For business and professional reasons


how is foreign currency an economic advantage of tourism?

this helps pay for goods and services imported from abroad


facilitating factors for the growth of international tourism?

ease of obtaining visas


Arguments for the provision of aid to LICs include:

Emergency aid can save lives and help rebuild communities, livelihoods and housing after a disaster

Provision of medical training, medicines and equipment can improve health and standard of living

Aid for agriculture can help improve farming techniques, increases food production and improve the quality and quantity of food available

Aid for industrial development can create employment and improve infrastructure in transport such as roads and railways, supporting countries in developing their natural resources and power supply

Developing clean water and sanitation to improve health and living standards


how is the hideaway resort environmentally sustainable

locally managed marine area
can’t be fished

increase in fish stocks by half
better state of coral reef


causes of national debt

global recession
structural weaknesses of the economy
high levels of fiscal imbalance and high public spending and borrowing

inappropriate development policy
political instability
bad decisions
dependency on colonial ties
trade issues
prius loans, rising price of key imported goods


example of environmental impact of tourism (air pollution)

tour buses often leave motors running for hours while tourists go on excursions

return to a heated or air conditioned bus


what are the overall reasons for the rapid growth in international tourism?

Rise in incomes
Increased leisure time
Increased mobility
Increased promotion through media coverage
Major sporting events
Increased international migration
Political freedom


why is mass tourism important?

ability to generate wealth for:
area companies individuals
via investment

individual tourists get the holiday they want


what is an invisible import or export

a product that is traded and flows in and out of s country

Invisible as it can’t be touch or seen physically
eg a service such as finance information consultancy and tourism


how does Majorca fit the discovery stage of butlers model?

1960s received left than half a million

attracted based on the unspoilt beaches picturesque villages, in polluted seas


fair trade background

food sales growing by 25%

invoking 400 HIC companies

roughly 500,000 farmers


What is a debt crisis?

If major debtors are unable to pay the interest and redemption payments due on their debts, or if creditors are not confident they will do so


define locational advantage

a locational advantage is the benefits or competitive edge derived from a place’s unique nature and or position


how does resource endowment affect trade?

mineral resources eg oil

agricultural potential, human resources

eg Singapore’s lack of physical resources


economic factors for tourist providers that explain the rise of niche tourism?

potential profit
exploitation of new markets
eco tourism aim to assist local economies
marketing strategies


Positive cultural impacts of tourism

Increasing the range of social facilities for local people

Helping develop foreign language skills for host communities


environmental problems with national debt?

creates pressure to exploit resources quickly with less attention to environmental issues m
responding to environmental disasters is more difficult


what are the overall economic advantages of tourism

multiplier effect
informal sector
foreign currency
growth in income


role of the WTO

deals with global rules of trade between countries and trade blocs

functions to ensure trade runs smoothly predictably and freely

achieved this by negotiating trade agreements, encouraging liberalisation (LEDCS) and by dealing with trade disputes
these are negotiated and signed by the majority of trading countries, then ratified in their parliaments


what are Fair Trade goals in a global level

campaigning for change

challenging conventional trading practice

raising awareness on fair trade issues


recent initiatives providing debt relief

WORLD BANK Highly Indebted Poor Countries Injtative

Post G8 summit 2005 african debt cancelled


what are the physical components of carrying capacity

natural systems and limits imposed by infrastructure

eg water supply transportation accommodation


how does ecotourism avoid the negative impacts assoicated with traditional tourism?

awareness building
education programme
investment of profits in local community


how are low lid low skilled jobs an economic disadvantage of tourism?

many of the higher skilled and better paid jobs are taken by foreigners


what is the world trade organisation?

an international body whose purpose is to promote free trade

this is done by persuading countries to abolish import tariffs and barriers

159 member states
set up in 1995

regulated merchandise goods, services eg telecommunications or intellectual property


causes of the debt crisis

large scale lending by the WTO to newly independent LEDCs for economic development

world recession in the 70s and 80s caused increase in oil prices, countries started to default on repayments

instability, civil wars, corruption


example of a natural disasters external shock

2010 iceland volcanic eruption

prevent travel
ruin infrastructure down 100,000 flights


why are HIC countries to blame for LIC debt? (greedy and explorative)

accumulated in the international debt crisis

following a surge in oil prices in the 1970s OPEC governments and countries invested petrodollars into Western Banks such as International Monetaru Find

These banks loaned he money to poorer countries in order to make a profit, enticed due to the low interest in order to develop

in order that banks could get their money back they were encourage to exploit raw materials and conform to HIC terms of trade - free trade abolish protectionism

1980 global recession raised interest rates rapidly alongside inflation, meaning LICs could no longer sell crops at same level
crop surplus - fall in price, export demand fell and income fell in turn
left with debt

caused by globalisation - global markets impacted


describe vietnam’s tourist growth

1990s investment from Korea Japan and Taiwan

2007 WTO membership
new airport in Danang
Roads but to tourist areas eg from hanoi to halong bay

more than 10 million in 2016, 26% increase from the last 2015

20 million visitors by 2020
repeat visits only 10%


how is leakage an economic disadvantage of tourism?

airlines hotels and tourist activities in LICs may be foreign often owned by large TNCs

this means 60-75% per cent of tourist income may either never come to may leave the LiC

many tourists may spend most of their money in hotels going on trips organised by their hotels so having little impact on the wider economy


describe the involvement stage of butlers model

follows where local people are involved in providing local facilities for tourists
eg simple accommodation an eating place or transport such as taxis
a tourist season then emerges


reasons for the continued popularity of mass tourism?

cheap (package deals)
media influence
development and rejuvenation
holiday entikitmrnrt
growth of disposable income