Flashcards in Globalisation Deck (89)
What has globalisation lead to?
INCREASED DEMAND FOR GOODS
INCREASED CONSUMPTION OF RESOURCES
POLLUTION (air sea and water)
Use a case study to describe the disadvantages of the development of a TBC?
- coke invests in countries such as India/ China as there is a lack of strict pollution controls
- this leads to health risks such as birth defects and many deaths
- been taking large amounts of water from the water tables of local communities eg El Salvador
- communities can no longer wash, se crops and no longer eat without water
- 30,000 children are employed
- they miss education and participate in dangerous works with safety risks
- in China 30% of the country suffers from acid rain due to coal-fired power stations
Economic impacts of increased importing of food?
Chemicals (fertilisers)can be expensive so farmers may have to borrow money which can cause debt
Steady income by producing food to export
What is a positive environmental effect driven through Shanghai?
Shanghai plans to turn a huge island into the Yangtze River into an eco city
Why is the control of water supply important? 3
-less danger of crop failure due to drought
- a greater range of crops can be grown
- less danger in times of conflict of losing water supply
Economic reasons for growth of call centres abroad? 3
- lower wages (£1,200 in India compared to £12,000 in UK)
- tax incentives from the Indian government so goods used to set up call centres aren't taxed
- Internet cables have reduced cost of calls so no need to be close to the caller
Political impacts of increased importing of food?
Lots of water needed
In some countries with low rainfall, land has to be irrigated
As demand for water increased there can be tension between countries who use the same water source
Explain how one renewable energy source might help achieve sustainable development
- The UK is investing in offshore wind farms to meet its climate change targets
- 1,184 turbines in Blyth harbour North East England with Northern Ireland
- once they are built they don't emit greenhouse gasses
- this makes a good contribution to sustainable development in the UK because we will be able to meet our power needs without harming the planet for future generations
- also creates economic stability as it creates green jobs powering future industrial growth & development
What is the influence of ICT developments?2
- decline in air and sea transport
- cost of transatlantic phone calls and satellite charges have declined
How have improvements in ICT increased globalisation?
More information can be carried and faster
It is quicker and easier for businesses all over the world to communicate with eachother
How much money can a company save by using call centres?
What is a secondary industry?
An industry that PROCESSES raw materials such as oil or manufactured products that form raw materials, often in factories
Examples of renewable energy?
- burning of biomass
How can you recognise a TNC?4
They sell products in multiple countries
Headquarters located in MEDCS as there is more money to invest in and people have better qualifications
What is globalisation?
The increasing link between countries throughout the world and the resulting increase in interdependence eg. Global buisness operations
Explain why the number of food miles is increasing 3
- people are eating more so more has to be imported because everything can't be created in our own country
- our society is increasingly multicultural meaning there's more demand for ethnic food abroad
- we are eating the same foods all year round so they have to be imported when they aren't in season to keep up
Describe one social impact of increased energy use?
- wind farms are an eyesore so people may object
- nuclear power has safety risks so people may object / be frightened
- energy becomes more expensive as demand increases leading some people to experience fuel poverty
Increase in global demand for energy?
Ownership of cars
Development in technology
Where was Kyoto Protocol?
Describe the features of a localised industrial region with global connections?
Many formula 1 firms have their works in Motor Sport Valley, Oxford.
They are near to a testing track at Silverstone
Drives can easily fly in by plane
Better internet communication means teaserch into different parts of the car can take place anywhere in the world
How does buying local food rescue negative effects of globalisation?
Reduces food miles
Supports local farmers
Advantages of locally produced food?
Spent less time travelling so is fresher
Lower carbon foot print
Farmers markets support farmers and not large supermarket
Explain the social and economic effects of the development of cash crop farming in poorer parts of the world?6
- increasing wealth gap between the farmers that have the most land
- or can afford the best seeds and the poorer ones.
- insecurity as the cash crops are traded on the world market and so the prices change
-the farmers income fluctuates
- In Kenya they grow roses and have a lot of business on Valentine’s Day so the farmers have a variable income the rest of the year
- but still have to buy food all year round and they may not make enough
Economic impacts of increased energy use?
Countries with lots of energy resources will become riches as countries with few resources will buy energy from them
What is global interdependence?
Industry in all parts of the world linked together because of ownership and communications
How does the increased demand of energy can have increased environmental effect?4
- more drilling in unspoilt remote areas
Eg in Alaska a pipeline was built going through unspoilt mountain ranges & protected areas
- this could upset the wildlife and there is always a risk of spillage
- transporting oil by tankers has lead to Eco damage when there is a spoilage meaning the ecosystem suffers
How can intestine farming affect climate change?
Use of fossil fuels or energy to heat greenhouses
Intensive animal rearing
Increased use of fertiliser
Produced greenhouse gas
What are the economic consequences of deindustrialisation?3
- lack of money or proper food and health, education, clothes
- unemployment long term
- shop closures
Environmental impacts of increased importing of food?
Transporting food produces C02 - global warming
Chemicals can seep into water supply from farming
Lots of energy used to run machinery and make chemicals to produce food all year round (in the same place)
What is a localised industrial region?2
A cluster of similar industry's in one place eg motor sport valley
What is a tertiary industry?
Industries that provide services for other people such as education, health care, transport and retail
What is a satellite?
An object which revolves around the earth following a particular path or orbit
How can pollution problems be reduced in LEDCS?
Fitting filters to chimneys of industrial plants to reduce gases entering the atmosphere - REDUCE AIR POLLUTION
traffic control measures eg congestion charges or increased car park charges to reduce traffic entering the city
What is outsourcing?
The act of obtaining goods or services by contact from an outside supplier
Environmental impacts of increased demand for food?
Overgrazing reduced vegetation - soil is blown or washed away
Soil becomes less fertile as crops use up valuable nutrients
What are satellites used for?7
Economic impacts of increased energy usage?
Oil rich counties are given economic advantage
More and more money needs to be spent exploring alternate energy source
Natural diastema cause millions
Why is there growth in call centres in India?8
- cheaper labour
- lower operating costs
- 80% of graduates speak fluent English
- growing technology parks
- save £10 million a year for every 1,000 jobs
- strong work ethic
- company cars are sent ( avoid heavy traffic )
- better for Indians as they can earn £150 instead of just £60 as trainee doctors
Example of an SEZ?
Why have call centres abroad developed due to improvements in ICT and transport?
Improvements in ICT : easy to phone a far away country with no difference in time
Labour is cheaper with reduced running costs
Social impacts of increased energy production?
More power plants built (people have to move away to accommodate building)
Radioactive waste as more nuclear power is built
Creates jobs as people maintain, run and build more power stations
Explain how developments in ICT have encouraged globalisation? 4
- The internet means you can send large amounts of data easily
- Lets Motorsport valley develop as they can research anywhere globally and bring it together in one place
- because web communication is faster and cheaper than using a phone,
- specialised call centres or facilities can be anywhere in the world with no loss of time
Why have localised industrial regions developed due to improvements in ICT and transport?
Industries can develop around a specific region that's useful but still have global connections to get all other things needed
Environmental impacts of increased energy use?
Global warming (rising sea levels, extreme weather, extinction of species)
Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain
Deforestation destroys habitats (wood for fuel)
Mining causes air and water pollution (large areas of land destroyed)
Disadvantages of case study TNC?5
- coca cola
- working conditions are very harsh and tropical countries are without air conditional facilities
- worked do not receive benefits and are left to pay for health treatment out of their little payment ($10 a day)
- if they pull out thousands will be left unemployed
- illegally taking water from the water table increasing chance of drought
What is interdependence?
People countries and businesses depending on each other
Benefits of increasing use of locally produced food? 3
- DOSENT travel as far (fresher) , this is better for you
- lower carbon footprint as hasent travelled as far
- events such as local farmers markets support the farmers , the money goes directly to them and dosent go to supermarkets
What are the social consequences of deindustrialisation?4
- conflict of different views
- depression / mental health issues
- drug addiction
What is a primary industry?
An industry such as fishing, gaming, forestry, mining that extracts raw materials from the land or sea
Economic effects of increased demand for food?
Increase in rural debt due to need for fertilisers
Farmers have a larger market
Higher cost of production because of increased demand
Higher cost of importing leading to higher demand
How can prohibition of strikes cause the growth of the manufacturing industry?
Money isn't lost due to employees stopping work
What did the Kyoto Protocol result in?
Recognised need to limit global temperature
Promised billions of dollies of aid to LEDC
Why has energy demand gone up?6
- industry operations use large sums of energy
- higher populations
- technology is more developed
- overall people have become more wealthy so more demand for electrical goods
How has China affected world trade?
There has been a 60 percent increase in world trade since 2004 as a result of China's industrialisation
Downside of China's economic growth
30% of China suffers from acid rain
70% of rivers and lakes are polluted
20% of population live on less than $1 a day
16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world
Environmental impacts of increased energy usage?
OIL SPILLS eg Exxon
DRILLING IN SENSITIVE AREAS FOR OIL
RISING SEA LEVELS
Social and political impacts of increased energy usage?
Countries rely heavily on others for energy supplies creates tension
Droughts and floods due to climate change cause homelessness, famine and disease
Parties funded by oil and gas companies can influence eg USA politics
How can long working hours lead to growth in manufacturing?
More product can be made in a day
Where are TNC factories normally located?
Poorer countries because the labour is cheaper so they make more profit
How can cheap labour lead to growth in manufacturing?
Reduces cost of manufacturing goods because factory workers are paid less
What evidence is there for things that are intensively grown?
- use of expensive machinery
- large amounts grown in small area
- controlled environment (lighting/heating)
How can tax incentives and tax free zones lead to the growth of manufacturing industries?
Increased profit because they pay lower taxes
How can carbon credits reduce the costs of globalisation?
- countries produce more then their target amount of carbon can buy them from a country producing less than the agreed amount
- overall reduction in carbon
Social impacts of importing food?
Farmers switching to commercial farming
Make more money due to high demand for food
Reduces food produced for local people so they have to import (more expensive)
If food prices go down farmers may not make enough money to provide for themselves
What are the political consequences of deindustrialisation?3
- damages the political reputation of the government in power
Why does trying to increase the amount of food produced in the world have environmental disadvantages?4
- more likely to lead to the development of irrigation
- if the farmer is unable to control the water this leads to the build up of salt in the soul
- the further an item of food has to travel the greater the amount of food miles it produces
- therefore the more food miles the more carbon dioxide is produced and adds to the greenhouse affect
How can lax health and safety regulations lead to growth in the manufacturing industry?
Lowers cost as less money spent increasing safety
Advantages of TNCs?9
- coca cola
- pledging to be water neutral by 2010
- removed 9,000 children as they are apposed to child labour
- offers training and education to those who have received little already
- runs some community schemes in 10 LEDC's eg Africa and Bangladesh
- invested $1.5 billion in the Russian economy - construction of manufacturing plants and improving local infrastructure
-profit stays in the home country
How have improvements in transport increased globalisation?
More airports, high speed trains and larger ships
Make it quicker and easier for people to meet face to face
It's also easier for materials to be distributed all over the world
Products can be sold all over the world as they don't have to be near suppliers
Reasons for China's rapid economic growth?4
- lack of health and safety legislation
- low wage costs
- tax incentives
Explain carbon credits from the Kyoto Protocol?
Countries that come under their emissions target get carbon credits
That can be sold to countries that didn't meet their targets
Reward for lower emissions
Figure to do with negative economic effects in China?
20 percent of the population live on less than $1 dollar a day
Describe the features of a named TNC?8
- Nike is a U.S. Based TNC
- employs 20,000 people in the world
- most are employed in product design, marketing and administration in the us
- there are roughly 500000 working in Asia in companies which NIKE subcontracts most of is manufacturing
-factories is making Nike products in : Taiwan, South Korea, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh be the Philippines
Why could deindustrialisation occur?
Factories move abroad because they can produce goods more cheaply there
Manufacture close down because they can't compete with the price of goods manufactured abroad
Benefits for companies of using call centres abroad?7 ( with case study info )
EG in Bangalore
- much lower salaries (£1,200 as opposed to £12,000) - 90% saving
- long shifts enable low staff turnover
- staff are willing to work 9 hour shifts so less people need to be employed
- easy get literate workers (80%) so company doesn't have to teach them English
- hard working people
- improving their lives as they earn more (£60 for a trainee doctor and £120 for a call centre employee)
Why have the number of food miles recently increased?
Wider variety eaten
Growth in ethic foods
Cheaper to import
Out of season foods
Give an example of China's use of renewable energy?
The three gorges Dam produces hydroelectric power in China
Use a case study to describe the advantages of the development of a TNC?
- provide jobs in factories giving people in poor country's income
- Coca Cola provides €1.50 x4 a day for a family in eg Columbia, India which benefits the economy
- through a multiplier effect because they spend more money in shops & businesses
- in countries such as Africa and Bangladesh they offer training and education to those who receive little
Explain the growth of industry in modern China? 4
- the Chinese government have invested a lot of money in industry and allowing forefinger investment from abroad
- with an increasing population there is a ready supply of cheap labour so manufacturing costs are kept down
- they are encourages industry to develop in open cities and economic growth regions by reducing restrictions eg pollution
- in the special enterprise zone lower tax rates are enforced
Explain why the higher the development of the country the more globalised they are (with examples)?
- Europe is very globalised
- they trade the most and have the most links with the world
- etheir side of the equator in Africa has a lower index of globalisation
- because they don't have many links with the rest of the world and thus have poor economics
Explain how extensive farming production can affect climate change?2
- The increased use of fossil fuels use to heat the greenhouses
- this causes the levels of carbon dioxide int eh environment to increase
- adds to the greenhouse affect
How can reducing waste reduce negative impacts of globalisations?
Disadvantages of TNC?
Paid lower wages
Long working hours
In poor condition
Jobs that aren't secure
Why could their be a conflict because of the development of a water control scheme in the Middle East?3
- the dams in Turkey will hold back the water and so less after would get to Syria and Irak
- pollution in Turkey could affect other countries down steam
- when people have to be moved dams cause conflict
advantages of TNCS?
More reliable incomes
Spend money to improve local infrastructure
New technology and skills brought to poorer countries
What is a quaternary industry?
An industry such as microelectronics that provides information and expertise
What is the Kyoto Protocol?
An international agreement signed by most countries to cut emissions do C02 by 2012
Describe an economic impact of increased energy use?
- countries with large energy reserves get richer because other countries have to buy from them
- increased cost of energy because there is more competition for decreasing reserves more fuel poverty
- jobs created in the fuel / power industry