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Flashcards in Changing Urban Environments Deck (97)
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Why is the disposal of waste in cities difficult?

Lack of money means it's difficult to build the necessary infrastructure
The speed at which cities are growing means it's difficult to keep up with
Limited regulations on pollution and health and safety mean industries continue to pollute
Landfill is running out


What are some push reasons for why people are moving from rural areas to cities in India?5

Better housing
Better infrastructure
Better healthcare
Variety of work
Communication eg news
Jobs available eg call centres


How can conserving the historic and natural environment make urban living more sustainable?2

- once buildings have been knocked down and built on they are gone forever
- if these resources were used up by people today they will not be available for future generations to use in


Advantages of brownfield sites?5

- planning permission is easier to obtain
- makes efficient use of existing infrastructure (roads already exist)
- development becomes more sustainable (city sites aren't left derelict)
- increases the economic value of the land and increases the city's tax base
- quality of living improves
- lower communising time


How can reducing traffic occur?

Improving public transport
Increasing car parking charges
Pedestrianisation of central areas
Bus priority lanes


How can site and service schemes improve the local economy?

Residents pay a small rent for the site. They borrow money to get materials to build a house on their land. The rent money can be used for electricity


How can providing adequate open space make urban living more sustainable?2

Existing areas like parks are important for people's social well being, allowing them to participate in sports and recreation
If they are built on they are difficult to restore


How can creating efficent public transport contribute to sustainable cities?

Fewer cars on the road
Less pollution


What is a brownfield site?

Land which has been developed on previously and is/or occupied by a permanent structure


General solutions to the problem of ethnic segregation?

Increasing community involvement by ensuing the minority groups have their needs met
Improving education (when English may be a second language)
Involving people in significant decisions from all ethnic groups
Having translators at doctors and hospitals


Why does ethnic segregation occur?

People prefer to love near people with the same language
People live near to services that are important to their culture eg place of worship
They could be restricted because of lack of money do they all end up in the same place


How much road was built in London dock lands?

140 km


What strategies are there for supporting multicultural communities?

Providing interpreters at places like hospitals and police stations
Making sure everyone can access information about different services
Improving communication eg by involving leaders of ethnic communities
Making sure there are suitable services


Why do CBDS need to be improved?

Very few people live in CBDS they often become empty at night can can be dangerous because of crime + vandalism
Many shops are closing down because of out of town shopping centres


What is a solution to the problem of housing?

- regenerating old inner city housing into high rise flats ( more attractive and more people fit there )
- try to relocate people by offering people incentives to live elsewhere
- building new towns eg Milton Keys


How can providing English classes help ethic minorities?

More likely to get a job
Communicate with others


Describe the disadvantages of building new housing on brownfield sites?3

- any new housing residents of the tower block won't be able to afford
- unattractive as they are near old factories and buildings
- this means it can be difficult to get people live there


Solutions to air pollution?

Encourage public transport in order to reduce the number f cars on the road


How are multicultural communities supported in urban areas?7

- Leaflets and important documents in gicernment offices are printed in lots of languages so that different communities can understand
- Hospitals in large cities can have translators to help people who can't talk to doctors
- certain cities invite leaders from different cultures into meetings about decisions that will affect their area
- laws to protect ethnic minoritirs
- specialist buildings built eg mosques, halal shops
- big events eg Notting hill carnival which stated in 1965 on August bank holiday
- social groups / clubs / events from a young age


How much money was invested in the dock land redevelopment plan?

£10 billion


Between what years were 12,000 jobs lost in the dock lands?



How can the need to provide suitable housing be met in the inner city?

- updating and renovating terraced housing by putting in modern facilities
- slums can be demolished and replaced by modern town housing
- apartment blocks can be built to accommodate young professionals working in CBDS
- former industrial buildings such as warehouses can be turned into apartments
- greenhouse sites can be turned into modern apartments


What did Curitiba do to help the housing issue for the poor?

They provided 50,000 houses for the poor


What is a solution to the problem of pollution in a CBD?

Reduce the number of cars on the road by improving public transport


Explain the problem of ethnic segregation?

People of different ethnic groups tend to cluster together
Feeling safer about racial abuse
Easier to practice their culture


Explain natural increase?

People cities have children at a faster rate than in rural areas


Why is waste disposal a problem in poorer countries?

Money - can't afford to dispose of waste safely
Infrastructure - eg lorries can't get in to collect rubbish
Scale - large problem with a city that generated thousands of tonnes of waste every day


Why do NICS develop quickly?

Workers work for long hours for little pay
Long term industrial planning to attract new industry
global markets targeted


In Curitiba how many trees have been planted down the streets?

1.5 million


What is a greenfield site?

Land which has not previously been occupied by a permanent structure


Using a case study describe how squatter settlements can be improved?8

- the dharavi redevelopment plan
- knock down slums build tower blocks
- better toilets and showers

- steal electrical supply
- close to 5,000 industrial units
- people can earn an income through pottery ' cottage industry's'
- selling plastic ( earning 1-5 pennies ) which means 80% of Mumbai plastic gets recycled c


What is urbanisation?

The increasing percentage of the population living in urban areas
Rapid urbanisation is happening in less developed countries (rural urban migration)


What are some solutions to the problem of ethnic segregation?

- increasing community involvement by ensuring that minority groups have their needs are met
- improving education where English can be second language


In dhavari how many people visit health centres a day?



Case study information : solutions for the problem of traffic in CBDS (congestion charge) (7)

In London in places:
Waterloo, Charring cross. Wesminster and Covent garden
£11.50 daily charge
Between 0700 and 1800
Monday to Friday
Biggest congestion charge scheme to launch in any city
Started February 2003


What is sustainability?

Development that preserves future resources, standards of living and the needs of future generations


Features of local industrialised regions?

Many formula 1 firms have works in Oxfordshire allied Motorsport alley
Near solve stone testing track
Drivers can fly in easily by plane
Reaserch into different parts of car can happen elsewhere in the world due to ease of communication.


Describe how pollution problems could be reduced in cities in poorer parts of the world?

Congestion charges
Increased car park charges
Reduce the amount of traffic entering the city


Compare urbanisation in rich countries to poor countries?

J. Poor countries it's happened faster and is more recent


Why might CBDs be declining?2

- more out of town shopping centres which CBDS can't compete with
- more people internet shopping as it's cheaper putting shops in the CBD out of business o


What factors have caused globalisation?

Improvements in transport
Growth of computer and Internet technology
Expanding markets in developing countries
Growth of international organisations (TNCS)


What can be found in the inner city?

Terraced housing
Derelict buildings
High crime rate
Bad environment to live in
Warehouses / industry can also be found here


Explain the differences in urban growth between the richer and poorer parts of the world?3

- there is rapid urbanisation in poorer parts of the world due to rural-urban migration
- industrialisation and economic development in some poorer countries
- major urbanisation has already taken place in rich countries so they already have high levels of urbanisation


Solutions to improve the Mumbai slum externally?

Improve rural areas - $30 pcs and tablets in rural India
New towns - build new cities elsewhere eg 10th of Ramadan city
Education and employment - helping people escape from poverty and afford better housing
Site and service - authorities provide plot, infrastructure and electricity


Case study information in Brentwood?6

- redevelopment of Chapel High shopping centre in Brentwood
- between 2004 and 2005 £10 million was spent updating and changing the old shopping centre into
- ' baytree centre'
- shops such as Holland & Barrett, WHSmith and the body shop have been opened
- 22 new shopping unite
- 650 space multi storey car park


Why can pollution be a problem in a city?

It can cause health issues as well as damaging the environment and buildings


Examples ( in relation to sustainable urban living ) of historic environments being conserved?3

Curry sark
Nelsons column
Naval college


How can squatter settlements be improved by self help schemes?

The government gives people materials so they can build their own homes. The money they save through not having to buy materials can be spent on electricity


How many new houses were built in the London dock lands?



What efforts have been made to revitalise CBDS?

Improving acces with better transport and car parking
Improving public areas (eg parks) making them more attractive
Pedestrianising areas to make them safer and nicer for shops
Converting brownfield sights and building on them with new shops restaurants and museums be


What are some push reasons for why people are moving from rural areas to cities in India?5

Poverty as a result
Lack of jobs
Poor infrastructure


How many passengers are there in Curitiba every day on the buses?

1.3 million per day


Advantages of greenfield sites?6

- clean uncontaminated land so site does not need to be cleared
- reduced development cost (cheaper land)
- more space for development
- ' clean sheet' for planning design


Local examples of buildings that have been preserved?3

- cutty sark
- nelson column
- naval college


What evidence can you see for somewhere being a CBD?5

- cathedral
- university
- town hall
- museum
- main roads


What is a solution of traffic congestion? 3

- charging a higher fee : running a car or parking
- improve public transport : people would be more likely to use it and not use traffic jams
- pedestrianisation : so there's less congestion


Problems caused by rapid urbanisation of cities in the poor world?

Growth of squatter settlements
Noise and air pollution
Toxic waste
Insufficient water
Lack of shelter


How does disposing of waste make urban living more sustianable?

Recycling reduces waste produced
Landfill sites are saved
Recycling creates jobs


Outline how CBDS can be improved (8)

1) improvement of the physical environment with flowers
2) street improvement more attractive and encourages people to stay
3) creation of markets
4) new indoor shopping centres
5) restoration of old buildings
6) city centre wardens to monitor behaviour
7) Concertd that people would want to visit


What is a simple regeneration budget?

Putting all money from different sources into one find so larger regeneration is possible


Factors influencing CBD decline? (Pull)

- planning policies can encourage urban expansion and encourage urban expansion and provide the developments in countryside
- city councils determined to attract new industry (inward investment), which offer beautiful greenfield sites for development
- investors and businesses are attracted by peripheral sites which have good access and beautiful environments and often lower costs


Causes of deindustrialisation?

Machines replacing people
China being able to produce goods more cheaply
Expensive goods due to low productivity, lack of investment and higher wages


Disadvantages of greenfield sites? 5

- inadequate services
- fewer job opportunities for the residents
- settlements become dormitories
- difficult to get planning permission
- no infrastructure in place
- damages environment and habitats


What are the problems with inner city redevelopment?

People could no longer afford to live there
Traffic congestion was becoming a large problem
Community spirit was lost
Limited oppertunities for existing people


How can land use in a city change over time?

New housing is often built on brownfield sights in the INNER CITY instead of at he edges of the city
Inner city tower blocks have been removed and regenerated
Increase in out of town shopping centres


How much park space does Curitiba have?

5190 acres


How can Poole in a slum make life better for themselves?

Take the local electricity supply
Gang involvement making money selling guns and drugs


Why poorer cities suffer from pollution?

Increasing wealth means more people own cars and so traffic pollution
More industrialised do air pollution
Poor infastructure and disposal of waste is causing pollution
Less regulations


What is sustainable urban living?

Living in a city which isn't wasteful and doesn't pollute the environment


Between the years of 1978-1973 how many jobs were lost in the dock lands?

12,000 jobs were lost


What can local governments do to prevent urban sprawl?

Green belts exist to protect the country sides from development, stopping urban sprawl


Why encourage ethnic minorities to open their own business?

Immigrants are able to enjoy a better standard of living

Less likelihood of discrimination


How can cities become more sustainable?5

- conserving the historic and natural environment
- reducing and safely disposing of waste
- proving adequate open spaces
- involving local people
- providing efficient public transport


What is curitibas's population?

1.8 millio


How can building on brownfield sites contribute to sustainable development?

Stops green space from being used up
So space available for people in the future


How does Curitiba have open space and conserved natural environments?

Over 1,000 parks
1.5 million trees planted
Builders are given tax breaks of their buildings include green space
Green space increased from 0.5m in 1970 to 52 in 1990


Causes or urbanisation?

Few amenities in rural areas
Education and health care is better in cities
Better jobs avalible in cities
Better quality of life in cities


What is city challenge?

Projects involving private public and colunatry services working together on improvements


Explain rural to urban migration?

People moving from the countryside to cities or towns


How to reduce housing shortages?

Building new towns
Relocating people by offering them incentives to move elsewhere
Regenerating old inner city houses into high rise flats


How can conserving the natural and historic environments contribute to sustainable development?

If they are used up today they won't be available for people in future use
They can be protected and historic buildings can be restored


Why might ethnic segregation happen?5

Support from racial abuse
Safety in numbers
Specialist facilities
Familiar culture
Employment eg poorly paid workers have to live in the poorest areas


Problems caused by high levels of road traffic in towns?4

- accidents due to people trying to cross the road
- increase in road rage
- traffic jams and so delayed journey times
- the number of cars could cause noise pollution


How can urban living be sustainable?

- green belts
- the disposal of waste
-improving the public transport system
-carbon neutral homes
- not developing on historic homes


How does Curitiba have a good recycling schemes?

70% of rubbish is recycled
Paper recycling saves 1,200 trees per day
Poor residents are given food and bus tickets in return for bringing recycling in to be collected


Describe green belts?

Prevents urban sprawl
Encourages development on brown field sites
Which is more sustainable


How does rapid urbanisation and industrialisation effect the environment?

More water pollution - sewage and toxic chemicals from industry can seep into water supply
More air pollution - burning fuel
Waste disposal problems - this can damage health and the envruonnt nt if toxic and not properly disposed of


How can cities become more sustainable?

Safe disposal of waste
Building on brownfield sights
Creating efficient public transport systems
Conserving the historic and natural environment
Building carbon neutral homes


What do the suburbs contain?

Larger housing
Modern houses


What are the problems in urban areas?

Run down CBDS
A shortage of good housing
Traffic congestion and pollution
Ethnic segregation


How does Curitiba reduce car use?

An efficient bus system that is used by more than 1.4 million passengers per day
200 km of bike paths in the city
Car use is 25% lower than in Brazil as public transport is so popular
Cheap fare for poorer students
Express bus system with reduced boarding times and bus only lanes


Strategy to support multicultural communities?

Providing English classes - more likely to get job
Ethic areas as tourist attractions - continue a traditional way of life and earn money
Encourage ethic mix - less tension
Own businesses 1 better standard of living from profits, less discrimination
Cultural activities eg dance days


Give two ways urbanisation could take place? 2

- Rural to urban migration
- natural increase


What is urban sprawl?

The controlled outwards expansion of the built up area of towns or cities


Factors influencing CBD decline? (Push)

- rise in car ownership (increased personal mobility) paired with a rise in out of town shopping centres
- the cost of upkeep of CBDS is high (buisness rates, rents, land costs)
- congestion in CBDS means accesibilty is reduced
- they are perceived as dirty, unsafe, with poor infrastructure
- companies find countryside locations cheaper and nearer, the wealthier customers
- progressive suburbanisation leads to urban sprawl; for cities on the edge the city centre may be miles away


How many people share a toilet?

500 share the same toilet


How many people now live in the London dock lands?