Glomerulonephritis Flashcards Preview

Renal > Glomerulonephritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glomerulonephritis Deck (19):
1

True or false: A patient with blood and protein in their urine will always have glomerulonephritis?

False

2

When a urine dipstick is positive what is the first test you need to do?

1. Send urine for ACR
2. Send urine for culture and sensitivity
3. send urine for PCR

2. Send urine for culture and sensitivity

3

If a patient has an urinary tract infection, what are the parameters which may be positive? (All that apply)

1. Blood and proteins
2. Nitrites
3. Leucocytes

1 +2+3
Blood, protein, nitrites, leucocytes

4

If the patient urine dipstick is positive for invisible haematuria, which department would you refer the patient to?
1. Urology
2. Nephrology
3. Haematology

1 +2
Urology- might have cancer
Nephrology - Might have GN
Haematology is only involved in cases where there is a bleeding or coagulation problem. In that case the patient would be bleeding from more than one site.

5

True or False: USS kidneys are done to find out the type of glomerulonephritis?

False

6

True or False: USS kidneys are done to rule out urinary tract obstructions?

True

7

RBC's when examined under the microscope can more commonly be dysmorphic if the RBC's are leaking from the glomeruli rather than leaking from a bleeding vessel from the ureters, bladder, urethra.

True
Because the biconcave shaped RBC gets squashed and loses their shape as they pass through the glomerular capillaries.

8

What is the normal urine protein excretion in a day?

1. 3g/24hrs
2. 300mg/24hrs
3. <150mg/24hrs

3. <150mg/24hrs

9

True or False: Nephrotic range proteinuria is >3.5g/24hrs

True

10

True or False: Nephrotic range proteinuria is very common in UTI's

False

11

True or False:
Nephrotic range proteinuria is very common in bladder cancer

False

12

True or False:
Nephrotic range proteinuria is seen in glomerulonephritis

True

13

Tolvaptan is a new drug approved by NICE for use in certain patients with ADPKD. The precautions needed to use this drug are:

1. Annual MRI volume measurement of the kidney is required
2. The eGFR needs to be less than 30ml/min
3, Patient needs to drink plenty of fluids
4. Patients need regular blood tests including renal and liver function tests

1 + 3 + 4

14

What is glomerulonephritis and what are the consequences?

Glomerulonephritis simply means inflammation of the glomeruli and nephrons.

The consequences of this inflammation are:
• Damage to the glomerulus restricts blood flow, leading to compensatory hypertension
• Damage to the filtration mechanism allows protein and blood to enter the urine
• Loss of the usual filtration capacity leads to acute kidney injury

15

How can glomerulonephritis present?

Depending on the degree of inflammation and damage, and what it is caused by, patients therefore present with a spectrum of disease:
1.Blood pressure: normal --> malignant hypertension
2. Urine dipstick: proteinuria mild --> nephrotic, haematuria mild --> macroscopic
3. Renal function: normal --> severe impairment

16

Many GN patients present with specific syndromes. What is the BP, urine and GFR like for nephrotic syndrome?

BP: Normal to Mild ↑
Urine: Proteinuria
GFR: Normal to mild ↓

17

What are the primary and secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome?

Common Primary causes
--> Membranous
--> Minimal change
--> FSGS
--> Mesangiocapillary GN

Common secondary causes:
--> Diabetes
--> SLE
--> Amyloid
--> Hepatitiis B/C

18

Many GN present with specific syndromes. What is the BP, urine and GFR like for nephritic syndrome?

BP: Moderate to severe ↑
Urine: Haematuria
GFR: Moderate to severe ↓

19

What are the primary and secondary causes of nephritic syndrome?

Common primary causes:
--> IgA nephropathy
--> Mesangiocapillary GN

Common secondary causes:
--> Post-Streptococcal
--> Vasculitis
--> SLE
--> Anti-GBM disease
--> Cryoglobulinaemia