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Cultural Anthropology > Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary Deck (242)
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1

acclimatization

The physiological process of being or becoming accustomed to a new physical environment.

2

Acheulean Industry

One of the major industries of the Lower Paleolithic (the Old Stone Age). The technology generally associated with Homo erectus.

3

achieved status

A status that results, at least in part, from a person's voluntary actions.

4

adaptation

The process in which an organism makes a successful adjustment to a specific environment.

5

adaptive radiation

The relatively rapid evolution of a species in a new environmental niche.

6

adjudication

The settling of legal disputes through a formal, centralized authority.

7

aerial photography

Photographs taken from the air of archaeological sites and the landscape. Helpful to archaeologists in mapping and locating sites.

8

age grades

Statuses defined by age through which a person moves in the course of his or her lifetime.

9

age sets

Corporate groups of people of about the same age who share specific rights, obligations, duties, and privileges in their community.

10

age stratification

The unequal allocation of wealth, power, and prestige among people of different ages.

11

agribusiness

Commercialized, mechanized agriculture.

12

agricultural states

States in which the power of the ruling elite was vested in the control of agricultural surpluses. This type of control typifies early states.

13

alleles

The alternate forms of genes.

14

ambilineal descent group

A social kinship group formed by choosing to trace relationships through either a male or a female line.

15

analogy

Similarities in organisms that have no genetic relatedness.

16

anatomically modern Homo sapiens

The most recent form of human, distinguished by a unique anatomy that differs from that of earlier, archaic Homo sapiens.

17

animism

The belief that the world is populated by spiritual beings such as ghosts, souls, and demons.

18

antiquaries

Collectors whose interest lies in the object itself, not in where the fossils might have come from or what the artifact and associated materials might tell about the people that produced them. Collectors of this kind characterized the early history of archaeology.

19

anthropology

The systematic study of humankind.

20

apartheid

A political, legal, and social system developed in South Africa in which the rights of different population groups were based on racial criteria.

21

applied anthropology

The use of data gathered from the other subfields of anthropology to find practical solutions to problems in a society.

22

arboreal

Living in trees.

23

archaeology

The subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of the artifacts from past societies to determine the lifestyles, history, and evolution of those societies.

24

archaeological sites

Places of past human activity that are preserved in the ground.

25

archaic

A post-Pleistocene hunting-and-gathering adaptation in the Americas characterized by tools suitable for broad-spectrum collecting and more intensive exploitation of localized resources. Corresponds in terms of general trends with the Mesolithic of Europe.

26

archaic Homo sapiens

The earliest form of Homo sapiens, dating back more than 200,000 years.

27

artifacts

The material products of past societies.

28

artificial selection

The process in which people select certain plants and animals for breeding.

29

ascribed status

A status that is attached to a person from birth— for example, sex, caste, and race.

30

assimilation

The adoption of the language, culture, and ethnic identity of the dominant group in a society by other groups.