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Flashcards in Glossary Deck (43):
1

Leucocytes

The white blood cells
Includes polymorphs, lymphocytes and monocytes

2

Monocytes

Circulating phagocytic cells will become tissue macrophages

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Polymorph (granulocyte)

The polymorphonuclear leucocyte
(Granulocyte) Cells with 2-5 nuclear lobes and granules in the cytoplasm. Staining characteristics of the granules identify:
NEUTROPHILS; neutral staining granules in cytoplasm
BASOPHILS; basophilic granules. Basophils migrate to the tissues to become Mast Cells.
EOSINOPHILS; eosinophilic granules

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Neutrophilia

Increased neutrophils

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Neutropenia

Decreased neutrophils

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Lymphocytosis

Increased lymphocytes

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Activated lymphocytes

Often seen in viral infection

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Atypical mononuclear cells

Atypical reactive (CD8) lymphocytes in certain
Cells infections such as Glandular fever and viral hepatitis

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Thrombocytopenia

Reduced platelets

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Thrombocytosis

increased platelets

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Hypochromic microcytic

Poorly haemoglobinised and small RBCs
(↓MCH ↓MCV)
Seen in iron deficiency, chronic disease and thalassaemia trait

12

Reticulocytes

Immature RBCs. Normally

13

Rouleaux

RBC columns seen in samples with raised globulin or raised fibrinogen levels ie myeloma, chronic inflammation/infection

14

Target cells

RBC appearance frequently seen in liver disease (particularly in biliary obstruction), also seen in haemoglobinopathies

15

Spherocytes

Spherocytic RBCs seen in haemolysis particularly autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and hereditary spherocytosis

16

Howel jolly bodies

Nuclear fragments in RBC in hyposplenic patients

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Macrocytes

Large RBCs (↑MCV) seen in B12/folate deficiency, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism.

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Anisopoiklocytosis

Abnormalities of RBC shape and size seen in B12/folate deficiency

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RBC fragmentation

Seen in mechanical haemolytic anaemias eg prosthetic valve malfunction

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Haemoglobinopathy

Abnormality of globin synthesis

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Direct coombs test (DCT) direct atiglobulin test (DAGT)

Test to detect presence of antibody on RBC surface. (Positive in AIHA, HDN)

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eryhtroblasts

Nucleated RBC precursors

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Megaloblasts

The abnormal nucleated RBC precursors seen in B12 or Folate deficiency

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Myeloblasts/myelocytes/metmyelocytes

polymorph precursors

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Megakaryocytes

Platelet precursors

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Leukaemic Blasts

The abnormal primitive blast cells that are found in the bone marrow ( and often also in the peripheral blood ) in Acute leukaemia and poor prognosis Myelodysplastic syndromes

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Acute myeloid leukaemia

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia ( the more common acute leukaemia seen in adults)

28

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Describes the bone marrow appearance when abnormal
(dysplastic) cell growth occurs. Previously called pre-leukaemic as MDS can progress to secondary AML.

29

Myeloproliferative disorsers

Describes proliferation of cells in the bone marrow with normal (non dysplastic) appearance. CML, Polycythaemia Vera, Essential Thrombocythaemia and Myelofibrosis.

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Myeloma

Malignant proliferation of Plasma Cells in the Bone Marrow. Note this is a Lymphoproliferative disease NOT a Myeloproliferative Disease

31

Prothrombin time

Prothrombin time
Test of extrinsic pathway of coagulation sensitive to Warfarin and liver disease

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INR

International normalised ratio. Measure of Warfarin activity

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PTT

Partial Thromboplasm Time also known as APTT (activated PTT) and KCCT (Kaolin Cephalin clotting time) Measure of Intrinsic pathway sensitive to IV Heparin

34

Coagulation

Term to describe the Coagulation cascade and the pathways (Extrinsic and Intrinsic ) that lead to the conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Do not confuse with the term Aggutination which describes RBCs being stuck together (agglutinated ) by RBC antibodies.

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Purpura/oetechiae

Pin point bleeding on skin and mucous membranes. Usually due to thrombocytopenia or less commonly vasculitis. (The glass test: purpura does not blanch on pressure. Telangiectasia will blanch)

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DIC

Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Consumption of coagulation factors and platelets

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Ecchymoses

Bruises

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Factor concentrates

Freeze dried coagulation factors. Can be prepared from donated plasma (ie Beriplex: contains factors II, VII, IX, X for Warfarin reversal) or by recombinant technology ie recombinant F VIII for Haemophilia A.

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Group and screen

Determine ABO and Rh group. Screen plasma for immune RBC antibodies

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Packed RBCs

Units of blood from which most plasma has been removed.

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PPS

Plasma protein solution (albumin 5%)

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Cytoprecipitate

Prepared from donated plasma. Rich in F VIII and fibrinogen

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Indirect coombs test

Test to detect the presence of RBC antibodies in plasma. This test is the basis of the Cross Match and the antibody screen in Group and Screen