Flashcards in Glossary Deck (43):
The white blood cells
Includes polymorphs, lymphocytes and monocytes
Circulating phagocytic cells will become tissue macrophages
The polymorphonuclear leucocyte
(Granulocyte) Cells with 2-5 nuclear lobes and granules in the cytoplasm. Staining characteristics of the granules identify:
NEUTROPHILS; neutral staining granules in cytoplasm
BASOPHILS; basophilic granules. Basophils migrate to the tissues to become Mast Cells.
EOSINOPHILS; eosinophilic granules
Often seen in viral infection
Atypical mononuclear cells
Atypical reactive (CD8) lymphocytes in certain
Cells infections such as Glandular fever and viral hepatitis
Poorly haemoglobinised and small RBCs
Seen in iron deficiency, chronic disease and thalassaemia trait
Immature RBCs. Normally
RBC columns seen in samples with raised globulin or raised fibrinogen levels ie myeloma, chronic inflammation/infection
RBC appearance frequently seen in liver disease (particularly in biliary obstruction), also seen in haemoglobinopathies
Spherocytic RBCs seen in haemolysis particularly autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and hereditary spherocytosis
Howel jolly bodies
Nuclear fragments in RBC in hyposplenic patients
Large RBCs (↑MCV) seen in B12/folate deficiency, hepatic disease, hypothyroidism.
Abnormalities of RBC shape and size seen in B12/folate deficiency
Seen in mechanical haemolytic anaemias eg prosthetic valve malfunction
Abnormality of globin synthesis
Direct coombs test (DCT) direct atiglobulin test (DAGT)
Test to detect presence of antibody on RBC surface. (Positive in AIHA, HDN)
Nucleated RBC precursors
The abnormal nucleated RBC precursors seen in B12 or Folate deficiency
The abnormal primitive blast cells that are found in the bone marrow ( and often also in the peripheral blood ) in Acute leukaemia and poor prognosis Myelodysplastic syndromes
Acute myeloid leukaemia
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia ( the more common acute leukaemia seen in adults)
Describes the bone marrow appearance when abnormal
(dysplastic) cell growth occurs. Previously called pre-leukaemic as MDS can progress to secondary AML.
Describes proliferation of cells in the bone marrow with normal (non dysplastic) appearance. CML, Polycythaemia Vera, Essential Thrombocythaemia and Myelofibrosis.
Malignant proliferation of Plasma Cells in the Bone Marrow. Note this is a Lymphoproliferative disease NOT a Myeloproliferative Disease
Test of extrinsic pathway of coagulation sensitive to Warfarin and liver disease
International normalised ratio. Measure of Warfarin activity
Partial Thromboplasm Time also known as APTT (activated PTT) and KCCT (Kaolin Cephalin clotting time) Measure of Intrinsic pathway sensitive to IV Heparin
Term to describe the Coagulation cascade and the pathways (Extrinsic and Intrinsic ) that lead to the conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Do not confuse with the term Aggutination which describes RBCs being stuck together (agglutinated ) by RBC antibodies.
Pin point bleeding on skin and mucous membranes. Usually due to thrombocytopenia or less commonly vasculitis. (The glass test: purpura does not blanch on pressure. Telangiectasia will blanch)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Consumption of coagulation factors and platelets
Freeze dried coagulation factors. Can be prepared from donated plasma (ie Beriplex: contains factors II, VII, IX, X for Warfarin reversal) or by recombinant technology ie recombinant F VIII for Haemophilia A.
Group and screen
Determine ABO and Rh group. Screen plasma for immune RBC antibodies
Units of blood from which most plasma has been removed.
Plasma protein solution (albumin 5%)
Prepared from donated plasma. Rich in F VIII and fibrinogen